1 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) S. Cheshire 2 Request for Comments: 6762 M. Krochmal 3 Category: Standards Track Apple Inc. 4 ISSN: 2070-1721 February 2013 5 6 7 Multicast DNS 8 9 Abstract 10 11 As networked devices become smaller, more portable, and more 12 ubiquitous, the ability to operate with less configured 13 infrastructure is increasingly important. In particular, the ability 14 to look up DNS resource record data types (including, but not limited 15 to, host names) in the absence of a conventional managed DNS server 16 is useful. 17 18 Multicast DNS (mDNS) provides the ability to perform DNS-like 19 operations on the local link in the absence of any conventional 20 Unicast DNS server. In addition, Multicast DNS designates a portion 21 of the DNS namespace to be free for local use, without the need to 22 pay any annual fee, and without the need to set up delegations or 23 otherwise configure a conventional DNS server to answer for those 24 names. 25 26 The primary benefits of Multicast DNS names are that (i) they require 27 little or no administration or configuration to set them up, (ii) 28 they work when no infrastructure is present, and (iii) they work 29 during infrastructure failures. 30 31 Status of This Memo 32 33 This is an Internet Standards Track document. 34 35 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force 36 (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has 37 received public review and has been approved for publication by the 38 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on 39 Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741. 40 41 Information about the current status of this document, any errata, 42 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at 43 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6762. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 1] 53 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 54 55 56 Copyright Notice 57 58 Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the 59 document authors. All rights reserved. 60 61 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal 62 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents 63 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of 64 publication of this document. Please review these documents 65 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect 66 to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must 67 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of 68 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as 69 described in the Simplified BSD License. 70 71 This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF 72 Contributions published or made publicly available before November 73 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this 74 material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow 75 modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. 76 Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling 77 the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified 78 outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may 79 not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format 80 it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other 81 than English. 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 2] 108 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 109 110 111 Table of Contents 112 113 1. Introduction ....................................................4 114 2. Conventions and Terminology Used in This Document ...............4 115 3. Multicast DNS Names .............................................5 116 4. Reverse Address Mapping .........................................7 117 5. Querying ........................................................8 118 6. Responding .....................................................13 119 7. Traffic Reduction ..............................................22 120 8. Probing and Announcing on Startup ..............................25 121 9. Conflict Resolution ............................................31 122 10. Resource Record TTL Values and Cache Coherency ................33 123 11. Source Address Check ..........................................38 124 12. Special Characteristics of Multicast DNS Domains ..............40 125 13. Enabling and Disabling Multicast DNS ..........................41 126 14. Considerations for Multiple Interfaces ........................42 127 15. Considerations for Multiple Responders on the Same Machine ....43 128 16. Multicast DNS Character Set ...................................45 129 17. Multicast DNS Message Size ....................................46 130 18. Multicast DNS Message Format ..................................47 131 19. Summary of Differences between Multicast DNS and Unicast DNS ..51 132 20. IPv6 Considerations ...........................................52 133 21. Security Considerations .......................................52 134 22. IANA Considerations ...........................................53 135 23. Acknowledgments ...............................................56 136 24. References ....................................................56 137 Appendix A. Design Rationale for Choice of UDP Port Number ........60 138 Appendix B. Design Rationale for Not Using Hashed Multicast 139 Addresses .............................................61 140 Appendix C. Design Rationale for Maximum Multicast DNS Name 141 Length ................................................62 142 Appendix D. Benefits of Multicast Responses .......................64 143 Appendix E. Design Rationale for Encoding Negative Responses ......65 144 Appendix F. Use of UTF-8 ..........................................66 145 Appendix G. Private DNS Namespaces ................................67 146 Appendix H. Deployment History ....................................67 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 3] 163 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 164 165 166 1. Introduction 167 168 Multicast DNS and its companion technology DNS-Based Service 169 Discovery [RFC6763] were created to provide IP networking with the 170 ease-of-use and autoconfiguration for which AppleTalk was well-known 171 [RFC6760]. When reading this document, familiarity with the concepts 172 of Zero Configuration Networking [Zeroconf] and automatic link-local 173 addressing [RFC3927] [RFC4862] is helpful. 174 175 Multicast DNS borrows heavily from the existing DNS protocol 176 [RFC1034] [RFC1035] [RFC6195], using the existing DNS message 177 structure, name syntax, and resource record types. This document 178 specifies no new operation codes or response codes. This document 179 describes how clients send DNS-like queries via IP multicast, and how 180 a collection of hosts cooperate to collectively answer those queries 181 in a useful manner. 182 183 2. Conventions and Terminology Used in This Document 184 185 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", 186 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this 187 document are to be interpreted as described in "Key words for use in 188 RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119]. 189 190 When this document uses the term "Multicast DNS", it should be taken 191 to mean: "Clients performing DNS-like queries for DNS-like resource 192 records by sending DNS-like UDP query and response messages over IP 193 Multicast to UDP port 5353". The design rationale for selecting UDP 194 port 5353 is discussed in Appendix A. 195 196 This document uses the term "host name" in the strict sense to mean a 197 fully qualified domain name that has an IPv4 or IPv6 address record. 198 It does not use the term "host name" in the commonly used but 199 incorrect sense to mean just the first DNS label of a host's fully 200 qualified domain name. 201 202 A DNS (or mDNS) packet contains an IP Time to Live (TTL) in the IP 203 header, which is effectively a hop-count limit for the packet, to 204 guard against routing loops. Each resource record also contains a 205 TTL, which is the number of seconds for which the resource record may 206 be cached. This document uses the term "IP TTL" to refer to the IP 207 header TTL (hop limit), and the term "RR TTL" or just "TTL" to refer 208 to the resource record TTL (cache lifetime). 209 210 DNS-format messages contain a header, a Question Section, then 211 Answer, Authority, and Additional Record Sections. The Answer, 212 Authority, and Additional Record Sections all hold resource records 213 214 215 216 217 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 4] 218 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 219 220 221 in the same format. Where this document describes issues that apply 222 equally to all three sections, it uses the term "Resource Record 223 Sections" to refer collectively to these three sections. 224 225 This document uses the terms "shared" and "unique" when referring to 226 resource record sets [RFC1034]: 227 228 A "shared" resource record set is one where several Multicast DNS 229 responders may have records with the same name, rrtype, and 230 rrclass, and several responders may respond to a particular query. 231 232 A "unique" resource record set is one where all the records with 233 that name, rrtype, and rrclass are conceptually under the control 234 or ownership of a single responder, and it is expected that at 235 most one responder should respond to a query for that name, 236 rrtype, and rrclass. Before claiming ownership of a unique 237 resource record set, a responder MUST probe to verify that no 238 other responder already claims ownership of that set, as described 239 in Section 8.1, "Probing". (For fault-tolerance and other 240 reasons, sometimes it is permissible to have more than one 241 responder answering for a particular "unique" resource record set, 242 but such cooperating responders MUST give answers containing 243 identical rdata for these records. If they do not give answers 244 containing identical rdata, then the probing step will reject the 245 data as being inconsistent with what is already being advertised 246 on the network for those names.) 247 248 Strictly speaking, the terms "shared" and "unique" apply to resource 249 record sets, not to individual resource records. However, it is 250 sometimes convenient to talk of "shared resource records" and "unique 251 resource records". When used this way, the terms should be 252 understood to mean a record that is a member of a "shared" or 253 "unique" resource record set, respectively. 254 255 3. Multicast DNS Names 256 257 A host that belongs to an organization or individual who has control 258 over some portion of the DNS namespace can be assigned a globally 259 unique name within that portion of the DNS namespace, such as, 260 "cheshire.example.com.". For those of us who have this luxury, this 261 works very well. However, the majority of home computer users do not 262 have easy access to any portion of the global DNS namespace within 263 which they have the authority to create names. This leaves the 264 majority of home computers effectively anonymous for practical 265 purposes. 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 5] 273 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 274 275 276 To remedy this problem, this document allows any computer user to 277 elect to give their computers link-local Multicast DNS host names of 278 the form: "single-dns-label.local.". For example, a laptop computer 279 may answer to the name "MyComputer.local.". Any computer user is 280 granted the authority to name their computer this way, provided that 281 the chosen host name is not already in use on that link. Having 282 named their computer this way, the user has the authority to continue 283 utilizing that name until such time as a name conflict occurs on the 284 link that is not resolved in the user's favor. If this happens, the 285 computer (or its human user) MUST cease using the name, and SHOULD 286 attempt to allocate a new unique name for use on that link. These 287 conflicts are expected to be relatively rare for people who choose 288 reasonably imaginative names, but it is still important to have a 289 mechanism in place to handle them when they happen. 290 291 This document specifies that the DNS top-level domain ".local." is a 292 special domain with special semantics, namely that any fully 293 qualified name ending in ".local." is link-local, and names within 294 this domain are meaningful only on the link where they originate. 295 This is analogous to IPv4 addresses in the 169.254/16 prefix or IPv6 296 addresses in the FE80::/10 prefix, which are link-local and 297 meaningful only on the link where they originate. 298 299 Any DNS query for a name ending with ".local." MUST be sent to the 300 mDNS IPv4 link-local multicast address 220.127.116.11 (or its IPv6 301 equivalent FF02::FB). The design rationale for using a fixed 302 multicast address instead of selecting from a range of multicast 303 addresses using a hash function is discussed in Appendix B. 304 Implementers MAY choose to look up such names concurrently via other 305 mechanisms (e.g., Unicast DNS) and coalesce the results in some 306 fashion. Implementers choosing to do this should be aware of the 307 potential for user confusion when a given name can produce different 308 results depending on external network conditions (such as, but not 309 limited to, which name lookup mechanism responds faster). 310 311 It is unimportant whether a name ending with ".local." occurred 312 because the user explicitly typed in a fully qualified domain name 313 ending in ".local.", or because the user entered an unqualified 314 domain name and the host software appended the suffix ".local." 315 because that suffix appears in the user's search list. The ".local." 316 suffix could appear in the search list because the user manually 317 configured it, or because it was received via DHCP [RFC2132] or via 318 any other mechanism for configuring the DNS search list. In this 319 respect the ".local." suffix is treated no differently from any other 320 search domain that might appear in the DNS search list. 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 6] 328 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 329 330 331 DNS queries for names that do not end with ".local." MAY be sent to 332 the mDNS multicast address, if no other conventional DNS server is 333 available. This can allow hosts on the same link to continue 334 communicating using each other's globally unique DNS names during 335 network outages that disrupt communication with the greater Internet. 336 When resolving global names via local multicast, it is even more 337 important to use DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) [RFC4033] or other 338 security mechanisms to ensure that the response is trustworthy. 339 Resolving global names via local multicast is a contentious issue, 340 and this document does not discuss it further, instead concentrating 341 on the issue of resolving local names using DNS messages sent to a 342 multicast address. 343 344 This document recommends a single flat namespace for dot-local host 345 names, (i.e., the names of DNS "A" and "AAAA" records, which map 346 names to IPv4 and IPv6 addresses), but other DNS record types (such 347 as those used by DNS-Based Service Discovery [RFC6763]) may contain 348 as many labels as appropriate for the desired usage, up to a maximum 349 of 255 bytes, plus a terminating zero byte at the end. Name length 350 issues are discussed further in Appendix C. 351 352 Enforcing uniqueness of host names is probably desirable in the 353 common case, but this document does not mandate that. It is 354 permissible for a collection of coordinated hosts to agree to 355 maintain multiple DNS address records with the same name, possibly 356 for load-balancing or fault-tolerance reasons. This document does 357 not take a position on whether that is sensible. It is important 358 that both modes of operation be supported. The Multicast DNS 359 protocol allows hosts to verify and maintain unique names for 360 resource records where that behavior is desired, and it also allows 361 hosts to maintain multiple resource records with a single shared name 362 where that behavior is desired. This consideration applies to all 363 resource records, not just address records (host names). In summary: 364 It is required that the protocol have the ability to detect and 365 handle name conflicts, but it is not required that this ability be 366 used for every record. 367 368 4. Reverse Address Mapping 369 370 Like ".local.", the IPv4 and IPv6 reverse mapping domains are also 371 defined to be link-local: 372 373 Any DNS query for a name ending with "254.169.in-addr.arpa." MUST 374 be sent to the mDNS IPv4 link-local multicast address 18.104.22.168 375 or the mDNS IPv6 multicast address FF02::FB. Since names under 376 this domain correspond to IPv4 link-local addresses, it is logical 377 that the local link is the best place to find information 378 pertaining to those names. 379 380 381 382 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 7] 383 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 384 385 386 Likewise, any DNS query for a name within the reverse mapping 387 domains for IPv6 link-local addresses ("8.e.f.ip6.arpa.", 388 "9.e.f.ip6.arpa.", "a.e.f.ip6.arpa.", and "b.e.f.ip6.arpa.") MUST 389 be sent to the mDNS IPv6 link-local multicast address FF02::FB or 390 the mDNS IPv4 link-local multicast address 22.214.171.124. 391 392 5. Querying 393 394 There are two kinds of Multicast DNS queries: one-shot queries of the 395 kind made by legacy DNS resolvers, and continuous, ongoing Multicast 396 DNS queries made by fully compliant Multicast DNS queriers, which 397 support asynchronous operations including DNS-Based Service Discovery 398 [RFC6763]. 399 400 Except in the rare case of a Multicast DNS responder that is 401 advertising only shared resource records and no unique records, a 402 Multicast DNS responder MUST also implement a Multicast DNS querier 403 so that it can first verify the uniqueness of those records before it 404 begins answering queries for them. 405 406 5.1. One-Shot Multicast DNS Queries 407 408 The most basic kind of Multicast DNS client may simply send standard 409 DNS queries blindly to 126.96.36.199:5353, without necessarily even 410 being aware of what a multicast address is. This change can 411 typically be implemented with just a few lines of code in an existing 412 DNS resolver library. If a name being queried falls within one of 413 the reserved Multicast DNS domains (see Sections 3 and 4), then, 414 rather than using the configured Unicast DNS server address, the 415 query is instead sent to 188.8.131.52:5353 (or its IPv6 equivalent 416 [FF02::FB]:5353). Typically, the timeout would also be shortened to 417 two or three seconds. It's possible to make a minimal Multicast DNS 418 resolver with only these simple changes. These queries are typically 419 done using a high-numbered ephemeral UDP source port, but regardless 420 of whether they are sent from a dynamic port or from a fixed port, 421 these queries MUST NOT be sent using UDP source port 5353, since 422 using UDP source port 5353 signals the presence of a fully compliant 423 Multicast DNS querier, as described below. 424 425 A simple DNS resolver like this will typically just take the first 426 response it receives. It will not listen for additional UDP 427 responses, but in many instances this may not be a serious problem. 428 If a user types "http://MyPrinter.local." into their web browser, and 429 their simple DNS resolver just takes the first response it receives, 430 and the user gets to see the status and configuration web page for 431 their printer, then the protocol has met the user's needs in this 432 case. 433 434 435 436 437 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 8] 438 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 439 440 441 While a basic DNS resolver like this may be adequate for simple host 442 name lookup, it may not get ideal behavior in other cases. 443 Additional refinements to create a fully compliant Multicast DNS 444 querier are described below. 445 446 5.2. Continuous Multicast DNS Querying 447 448 In one-shot queries, the underlying assumption is that the 449 transaction begins when the application issues a query, and ends when 450 the first response is received. There is another type of query 451 operation that is more asynchronous, in which having received one 452 response is not necessarily an indication that there will be no more 453 relevant responses, and the querying operation continues until no 454 further responses are required. Determining when no further 455 responses are required depends on the type of operation being 456 performed. If the operation is looking up the IPv4 and IPv6 457 addresses of another host, then no further responses are required 458 once a successful connection has been made to one of those IPv4 or 459 IPv6 addresses. If the operation is browsing to present the user 460 with a list of DNS-SD services found on the network [RFC6763], then 461 no further responses are required once the user indicates this to the 462 user-interface software, e.g., by closing the network browsing window 463 that was displaying the list of discovered services. 464 465 Imagine some hypothetical software that allows users to discover 466 network printers. The user wishes to discover all printers on the 467 local network, not only the printer that is quickest to respond. 468 When the user is actively looking for a network printer to use, they 469 open a network browsing window that displays the list of discovered 470 printers. It would be convenient for the user if they could rely on 471 this list of network printers to stay up to date as network printers 472 come and go, rather than displaying out-of-date stale information, 473 and requiring the user explicitly to click a "refresh" button any 474 time they want to see accurate information (which, from the moment it 475 is displayed, is itself already beginning to become out-of-date and 476 stale). If we are to display a continuously updated live list like 477 this, we need to be able to do it efficiently, without naive constant 478 polling, which would be an unreasonable burden on the network. It is 479 not expected that all users will be browsing to discover new printers 480 all the time, but when a user is browsing to discover service 481 instances for an extended period, we want to be able to support that 482 operation efficiently. 483 484 Therefore, when retransmitting Multicast DNS queries to implement 485 this kind of continuous monitoring, the interval between the first 486 two queries MUST be at least one second, the intervals between 487 successive queries MUST increase by at least a factor of two, and the 488 querier MUST implement Known-Answer Suppression, as described below 489 490 491 492 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 9] 493 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 494 495 496 in Section 7.1. The Known-Answer Suppression mechanism tells 497 responders which answers are already known to the querier, thereby 498 allowing responders to avoid wasting network capacity with pointless 499 repeated transmission of those answers. A querier retransmits its 500 question because it wishes to receive answers it may have missed the 501 first time, not because it wants additional duplicate copies of 502 answers it already received. Failure to implement Known-Answer 503 Suppression can result in unacceptable levels of network traffic. 504 When the interval between queries reaches or exceeds 60 minutes, a 505 querier MAY cap the interval to a maximum of 60 minutes, and perform 506 subsequent queries at a steady-state rate of one query per hour. To 507 avoid accidental synchronization when, for some reason, multiple 508 clients begin querying at exactly the same moment (e.g., because of 509 some common external trigger event), a Multicast DNS querier SHOULD 510 also delay the first query of the series by a randomly chosen amount 511 in the range 20-120 ms. 512 513 When a Multicast DNS querier receives an answer, the answer contains 514 a TTL value that indicates for how many seconds this answer is valid. 515 After this interval has passed, the answer will no longer be valid 516 and SHOULD be deleted from the cache. Before the record expiry time 517 is reached, a Multicast DNS querier that has local clients with an 518 active interest in the state of that record (e.g., a network browsing 519 window displaying a list of discovered services to the user) SHOULD 520 reissue its query to determine whether the record is still valid. 521 522 To perform this cache maintenance, a Multicast DNS querier should 523 plan to retransmit its query after at least 50% of the record 524 lifetime has elapsed. This document recommends the following 525 specific strategy. 526 527 The querier should plan to issue a query at 80% of the record 528 lifetime, and then if no answer is received, at 85%, 90%, and 95%. 529 If an answer is received, then the remaining TTL is reset to the 530 value given in the answer, and this process repeats for as long as 531 the Multicast DNS querier has an ongoing interest in the record. If 532 no answer is received after four queries, the record is deleted when 533 it reaches 100% of its lifetime. A Multicast DNS querier MUST NOT 534 perform this cache maintenance for records for which it has no local 535 clients with an active interest. If the expiry of a particular 536 record from the cache would result in no net effect to any client 537 software running on the querier device, and no visible effect to the 538 human user, then there is no reason for the Multicast DNS querier to 539 waste network capacity checking whether the record remains valid. 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 10] 548 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 549 550 551 To avoid the case where multiple Multicast DNS queriers on a network 552 all issue their queries simultaneously, a random variation of 2% of 553 the record TTL should be added, so that queries are scheduled to be 554 performed at 80-82%, 85-87%, 90-92%, and then 95-97% of the TTL. 555 556 An additional efficiency optimization SHOULD be performed when a 557 Multicast DNS response is received containing a unique answer (as 558 indicated by the cache-flush bit being set, described in Section 559 10.2, "Announcements to Flush Outdated Cache Entries"). In this 560 case, there is no need for the querier to continue issuing a stream 561 of queries with exponentially increasing intervals, since the receipt 562 of a unique answer is a good indication that no other answers will be 563 forthcoming. In this case, the Multicast DNS querier SHOULD plan to 564 issue its next query for this record at 80-82% of the record's TTL, 565 as described above. 566 567 A compliant Multicast DNS querier, which implements the rules 568 specified in this document, MUST send its Multicast DNS queries from 569 UDP source port 5353 (the well-known port assigned to mDNS), and MUST 570 listen for Multicast DNS replies sent to UDP destination port 5353 at 571 the mDNS link-local multicast address (184.108.40.206 and/or its IPv6 572 equivalent FF02::FB). 573 574 5.3. Multiple Questions per Query 575 576 Multicast DNS allows a querier to place multiple questions in the 577 Question Section of a single Multicast DNS query message. 578 579 The semantics of a Multicast DNS query message containing multiple 580 questions is identical to a series of individual DNS query messages 581 containing one question each. Combining multiple questions into a 582 single message is purely an efficiency optimization and has no other 583 semantic significance. 584 585 5.4. Questions Requesting Unicast Responses 586 587 Sending Multicast DNS responses via multicast has the benefit that 588 all the other hosts on the network get to see those responses, 589 enabling them to keep their caches up to date and detect conflicting 590 responses. 591 592 However, there are situations where all the other hosts on the 593 network don't need to see every response. Some examples are a laptop 594 computer waking from sleep, the Ethernet cable being connected to a 595 running machine, or a previously inactive interface being activated 596 through a configuration change. At the instant of wake-up or link 597 activation, the machine is a brand new participant on a new network. 598 Its Multicast DNS cache for that interface is empty, and it has no 599 600 601 602 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 11] 603 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 604 605 606 knowledge of its peers on that link. It may have a significant 607 number of questions that it wants answered right away, to discover 608 information about its new surroundings and present that information 609 to the user. As a new participant on the network, it has no idea 610 whether the exact same questions may have been asked and answered 611 just seconds ago. In this case, triggering a large sudden flood of 612 multicast responses may impose an unreasonable burden on the network. 613 614 To avoid large floods of potentially unnecessary responses in these 615 cases, Multicast DNS defines the top bit in the class field of a DNS 616 question as the unicast-response bit. When this bit is set in a 617 question, it indicates that the querier is willing to accept unicast 618 replies in response to this specific query, as well as the usual 619 multicast responses. These questions requesting unicast responses 620 are referred to as "QU" questions, to distinguish them from the more 621 usual questions requesting multicast responses ("QM" questions). A 622 Multicast DNS querier sending its initial batch of questions 623 immediately on wake from sleep or interface activation SHOULD set the 624 unicast-response bit in those questions. 625 626 When a question is retransmitted (as described in Section 5.2), the 627 unicast-response bit SHOULD NOT be set in subsequent retransmissions 628 of that question. Subsequent retransmissions SHOULD be usual "QM" 629 questions. After the first question has received its responses, the 630 querier should have a large Known-Answer list (Section 7.1) so that 631 subsequent queries should elicit few, if any, further responses. 632 Reverting to multicast responses as soon as possible is important 633 because of the benefits that multicast responses provide (see 634 Appendix D). In addition, the unicast-response bit SHOULD be set 635 only for questions that are active and ready to be sent the moment of 636 wake from sleep or interface activation. New questions created by 637 local clients afterwards should be treated as normal "QM" questions 638 and SHOULD NOT have the unicast-response bit set on the first 639 question of the series. 640 641 When receiving a question with the unicast-response bit set, a 642 responder SHOULD usually respond with a unicast packet directed back 643 to the querier. However, if the responder has not multicast that 644 record recently (within one quarter of its TTL), then the responder 645 SHOULD instead multicast the response so as to keep all the peer 646 caches up to date, and to permit passive conflict detection. In the 647 case of answering a probe question (Section 8.1) with the unicast- 648 response bit set, the responder should always generate the requested 649 unicast response, but it may also send a multicast announcement if 650 the time since the last multicast announcement of that record is more 651 than a quarter of its TTL. 652 653 654 655 656 657 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 12] 658 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 659 660 661 Unicast replies are subject to all the same packet generation rules 662 as multicast replies, including the cache-flush bit (Section 10.2) 663 and (except when defending a unique name against a probe from another 664 host) randomized delays to reduce network collisions (Section 6). 665 666 5.5. Direct Unicast Queries to Port 5353 667 668 In specialized applications there may be rare situations where it 669 makes sense for a Multicast DNS querier to send its query via unicast 670 to a specific machine. When a Multicast DNS responder receives a 671 query via direct unicast, it SHOULD respond as it would for "QU" 672 questions, as described above in Section 5.4. Since it is possible 673 for a unicast query to be received from a machine outside the local 674 link, responders SHOULD check that the source address in the query 675 packet matches the local subnet for that link (or, in the case of 676 IPv6, the source address has an on-link prefix) and silently ignore 677 the packet if not. 678 679 There may be specialized situations, outside the scope of this 680 document, where it is intended and desirable to create a responder 681 that does answer queries originating outside the local link. Such a 682 responder would need to ensure that these non-local queries are 683 always answered via unicast back to the querier, since an answer sent 684 via link-local multicast would not reach a querier outside the local 685 link. 686 687 6. Responding 688 689 When a Multicast DNS responder constructs and sends a Multicast DNS 690 response message, the Resource Record Sections of that message must 691 contain only records for which that responder is explicitly 692 authoritative. These answers may be generated because the record 693 answers a question received in a Multicast DNS query message, or at 694 certain other times that the responder determines than an unsolicited 695 announcement is warranted. A Multicast DNS responder MUST NOT place 696 records from its cache, which have been learned from other responders 697 on the network, in the Resource Record Sections of outgoing response 698 messages. Only an authoritative source for a given record is allowed 699 to issue responses containing that record. 700 701 The determination of whether a given record answers a given question 702 is made using the standard DNS rules: the record name must match the 703 question name, the record rrtype must match the question qtype unless 704 the qtype is "ANY" (255) or the rrtype is "CNAME" (5), and the record 705 rrclass must match the question qclass unless the qclass is "ANY" 706 (255). As with Unicast DNS, generally only DNS class 1 ("Internet") 707 is used, but should client software use classes other than 1, the 708 matching rules described above MUST be used. 709 710 711 712 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 13] 713 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 714 715 716 A Multicast DNS responder MUST only respond when it has a positive, 717 non-null response to send, or it authoritatively knows that a 718 particular record does not exist. For unique records, where the host 719 has already established sole ownership of the name, it MUST return 720 negative answers to queries for records that it knows not to exist. 721 For example, a host with no IPv6 address, that has claimed sole 722 ownership of the name "host.local." for all rrtypes, MUST respond to 723 AAAA queries for "host.local." by sending a negative answer 724 indicating that no AAAA records exist for that name. See Section 725 6.1, "Negative Responses". For shared records, which are owned by no 726 single host, the nonexistence of a given record is ascertained by the 727 failure of any machine to respond to the Multicast DNS query, not by 728 any explicit negative response. For shared records, NXDOMAIN and 729 other error responses MUST NOT be sent. 730 731 Multicast DNS responses MUST NOT contain any questions in the 732 Question Section. Any questions in the Question Section of a 733 received Multicast DNS response MUST be silently ignored. Multicast 734 DNS queriers receiving Multicast DNS responses do not care what 735 question elicited the response; they care only that the information 736 in the response is true and accurate. 737 738 A Multicast DNS responder on Ethernet [IEEE.802.3] and similar shared 739 multiple access networks SHOULD have the capability of delaying its 740 responses by up to 500 ms, as described below. 741 742 If a large number of Multicast DNS responders were all to respond 743 immediately to a particular query, a collision would be virtually 744 guaranteed. By imposing a small random delay, the number of 745 collisions is dramatically reduced. On a full-sized Ethernet using 746 the maximum cable lengths allowed and the maximum number of repeaters 747 allowed, an Ethernet frame is vulnerable to collisions during the 748 transmission of its first 256 bits. On 10 Mb/s Ethernet, this 749 equates to a vulnerable time window of 25.6 microseconds. On higher- 750 speed variants of Ethernet, the vulnerable time window is shorter. 751 752 In the case where a Multicast DNS responder has good reason to 753 believe that it will be the only responder on the link that will send 754 a response (i.e., because it is able to answer every question in the 755 query message, and for all of those answer records it has previously 756 verified that the name, rrtype, and rrclass are unique on the link), 757 it SHOULD NOT impose any random delay before responding, and SHOULD 758 normally generate its response within at most 10 ms. In particular, 759 this applies to responding to probe queries with the unicast-response 760 bit set. Since receiving a probe query gives a clear indication that 761 some other responder is planning to start using this name in the very 762 near future, answering such probe queries to defend a unique record 763 is a high priority and needs to be done without delay. A probe query 764 765 766 767 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 14] 768 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 769 770 771 can be distinguished from a normal query by the fact that a probe 772 query contains a proposed record in the Authority Section that 773 answers the question in the Question Section (for more details, see 774 Section 8.2, "Simultaneous Probe Tiebreaking"). 775 776 Responding without delay is appropriate for records like the address 777 record for a particular host name, when the host name has been 778 previously verified unique. Responding without delay is *not* 779 appropriate for things like looking up PTR records used for DNS-Based 780 Service Discovery [RFC6763], where a large number of responses may be 781 anticipated. 782 783 In any case where there may be multiple responses, such as queries 784 where the answer is a member of a shared resource record set, each 785 responder SHOULD delay its response by a random amount of time 786 selected with uniform random distribution in the range 20-120 ms. 787 The reason for requiring that the delay be at least 20 ms is to 788 accommodate the situation where two or more query packets are sent 789 back-to-back, because in that case we want a responder with answers 790 to more than one of those queries to have the opportunity to 791 aggregate all of its answers into a single response message. 792 793 In the case where the query has the TC (truncated) bit set, 794 indicating that subsequent Known-Answer packets will follow, 795 responders SHOULD delay their responses by a random amount of time 796 selected with uniform random distribution in the range 400-500 ms, to 797 allow enough time for all the Known-Answer packets to arrive, as 798 described in Section 7.2, "Multipacket Known-Answer Suppression". 799 800 The source UDP port in all Multicast DNS responses MUST be 5353 (the 801 well-known port assigned to mDNS). Multicast DNS implementations 802 MUST silently ignore any Multicast DNS responses they receive where 803 the source UDP port is not 5353. 804 805 The destination UDP port in all Multicast DNS responses MUST be 5353, 806 and the destination address MUST be the mDNS IPv4 link-local 807 multicast address 220.127.116.11 or its IPv6 equivalent FF02::FB, except 808 when generating a reply to a query that explicitly requested a 809 unicast response: 810 811 * via the unicast-response bit, 812 * by virtue of being a legacy query (Section 6.7), or 813 * by virtue of being a direct unicast query. 814 815 Except for these three specific cases, responses MUST NOT be sent via 816 unicast, because then the "Passive Observation of Failures" 817 mechanisms described in Section 10.5 would not work correctly. Other 818 819 820 821 822 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 15] 823 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 824 825 826 benefits of sending responses via multicast are discussed in Appendix 827 D. A Multicast DNS querier MUST only accept unicast responses if 828 they answer a recently sent query (e.g., sent within the last two 829 seconds) that explicitly requested unicast responses. A Multicast 830 DNS querier MUST silently ignore all other unicast responses. 831 832 To protect the network against excessive packet flooding due to 833 software bugs or malicious attack, a Multicast DNS responder MUST NOT 834 (except in the one special case of answering probe queries) multicast 835 a record on a given interface until at least one second has elapsed 836 since the last time that record was multicast on that particular 837 interface. A legitimate querier on the network should have seen the 838 previous transmission and cached it. A querier that did not receive 839 and cache the previous transmission will retry its request and 840 receive a subsequent response. In the special case of answering 841 probe queries, because of the limited time before the probing host 842 will make its decision about whether or not to use the name, a 843 Multicast DNS responder MUST respond quickly. In this special case 844 only, when responding via multicast to a probe, a Multicast DNS 845 responder is only required to delay its transmission as necessary to 846 ensure an interval of at least 250 ms since the last time the record 847 was multicast on that interface. 848 849 6.1. Negative Responses 850 851 In the early design of Multicast DNS it was assumed that explicit 852 negative responses would never be needed. A host can assert the 853 existence of the set of records that it claims to exist, and the 854 union of all such sets on a link is the set of Multicast DNS records 855 that exist on that link. Asserting the nonexistence of every record 856 in the complement of that set -- i.e., all possible Multicast DNS 857 records that could exist on this link but do not at this moment -- 858 was felt to be impractical and unnecessary. The nonexistence of a 859 record would be ascertained by a querier querying for it and failing 860 to receive a response from any of the hosts currently attached to the 861 link. 862 863 However, operational experience showed that explicit negative 864 responses can sometimes be valuable. One such example is when a 865 querier is querying for a AAAA record, and the host name in question 866 has no associated IPv6 addresses. In this case, the responding host 867 knows it currently has exclusive ownership of that name, and it knows 868 that it currently does not have any IPv6 addresses, so an explicit 869 negative response is preferable to the querier having to retransmit 870 its query multiple times, and eventually give up with a timeout, 871 before it can conclude that a given AAAA record does not exist. 872 873 874 875 876 877 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 16] 878 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 879 880 881 Any time a responder receives a query for a name for which it has 882 verified exclusive ownership, for a type for which that name has no 883 records, the responder MUST (except as allowed in (a) below) respond 884 asserting the nonexistence of that record using a DNS NSEC record 885 [RFC4034]. In the case of Multicast DNS the NSEC record is not being 886 used for its usual DNSSEC [RFC4033] security properties, but simply 887 as a way of expressing which records do or do not exist with a given 888 name. 889 890 On receipt of a question for a particular name, rrtype, and rrclass, 891 for which a responder does have one or more unique answers, the 892 responder MAY also include an NSEC record in the Additional Record 893 Section indicating the nonexistence of other rrtypes for that name 894 and rrclass. 895 896 Implementers working with devices with sufficient memory and CPU 897 resources MAY choose to implement code to handle the full generality 898 of the DNS NSEC record [RFC4034], including bitmaps up to 65,536 bits 899 long. To facilitate use by devices with limited memory and CPU 900 resources, Multicast DNS queriers are only REQUIRED to be able to 901 parse a restricted form of the DNS NSEC record. All compliant 902 Multicast DNS implementations MUST at least correctly generate and 903 parse the restricted DNS NSEC record format described below: 904
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905 o The 'Next Domain Name' field contains the record's own name. 906 When used with name compression, this means that the 'Next 907 Domain Name' field always takes exactly two bytes in the 908 message. 909 910 o The Type Bit Map block number is 0. 911 912 o The Type Bit Map block length byte is a value in the range 1-32. 913 914 o The Type Bit Map data is 1-32 bytes, as indicated by length 915 byte. 916 917 Because this restricted form of the DNS NSEC record is limited to 918 Type Bit Map block number zero, it cannot express the existence of 919 rrtypes above 255. Consequently, if a Multicast DNS responder were 920 to have records with rrtypes above 255, it MUST NOT generate these 921 restricted-form NSEC records for those names, since to do so would 922 imply that the name has no records with rrtypes above 255, which 923 would be false. In such cases a Multicast DNS responder MUST either 924 (a) emit no NSEC record for that name, or (b) emit a full NSEC record 925 containing the appropriate Type Bit Map block(s) with the correct 926 bits set for all the record types that exist. In practice this is 927 not a significant limitation, since rrtypes above 255 are not 928 currently in widespread use. 929 930 931 932 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 17] 933 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 934 935 936 If a Multicast DNS implementation receives an NSEC record where the 937 'Next Domain Name' field is not the record's own name, then the 938 implementation SHOULD ignore the 'Next Domain Name' field and process 939 the remainder of the NSEC record as usual. In Multicast DNS the 940 'Next Domain Name' field is not currently used, but it could be used 941 in a future version of this protocol, which is why a Multicast DNS 942 implementation MUST NOT reject or ignore an NSEC record it receives 943 just because it finds an unexpected value in the 'Next Domain Name' 944 field. 945 946 If a Multicast DNS implementation receives an NSEC record containing 947 more than one Type Bit Map, or where the Type Bit Map block number is 948 not zero, or where the block length is not in the range 1-32, then 949 the Multicast DNS implementation MAY silently ignore the entire NSEC 950 record. A Multicast DNS implementation MUST NOT ignore an entire 951 message just because that message contains one or more NSEC record(s) 952 that the Multicast DNS implementation cannot parse. This provision 953 is to allow future enhancements to the protocol to be introduced in a 954 backwards-compatible way that does not break compatibility with older 955 Multicast DNS implementations. 956 957 To help differentiate these synthesized NSEC records (generated 958 programmatically on-the-fly) from conventional Unicast DNS NSEC 959 records (which actually exist in a signed DNS zone), the synthesized 960 Multicast DNS NSEC records MUST NOT have the NSEC bit set in the Type 961 Bit Map, whereas conventional Unicast DNS NSEC records do have the 962 NSEC bit set. 963 964 The TTL of the NSEC record indicates the intended lifetime of the 965 negative cache entry. In general, the TTL given for an NSEC record 966 SHOULD be the same as the TTL that the record would have had, had it 967 existed. For example, the TTL for address records in Multicast DNS 968 is typically 120 seconds (see Section 10), so the negative cache 969 lifetime for an address record that does not exist should also be 120 970 seconds. 971 972 A responder MUST only generate negative responses to queries for 973 which it has legitimate ownership of the name, rrtype, and rrclass in 974 question, and can legitimately assert that no record with that name, 975 rrtype, and rrclass exists. A responder can assert that a specified 976 rrtype does not exist for one of its names if it knows a priori that 977 it has exclusive ownership of that name (e.g., names of reverse 978 address mapping PTR records, which are derived from IP addresses, 979 which should be unique on the local link) or if it previously claimed 980 unique ownership of that name using probe queries for rrtype "ANY". 981 (If it were to use probe queries for a specific rrtype, then it would 982 only own the name for that rrtype, and could not assert that other 983 rrtypes do not exist.) 984 985 986 987 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 18] 988 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 989 990 991 The design rationale for this mechanism for encoding negative 992 responses is discussed further in Appendix E. 993 994 6.2. Responding to Address Queries 995 996 When a Multicast DNS responder sends a Multicast DNS response message 997 containing its own address records, it MUST include all addresses 998 that are valid on the interface on which it is sending the message, 999 and MUST NOT include addresses that are not valid on that interface 1000 (such as addresses that may be configured on the host's other 1001 interfaces). For example, if an interface has both an IPv6 link- 1002 local and an IPv6 routable address, both should be included in the 1003 response message so that queriers receive both and can make their own 1004 choice about which to use. This allows a querier that only has an 1005 IPv6 link-local address to connect to the link-local address, and a 1006 different querier that has an IPv6 routable address to connect to the 1007 IPv6 routable address instead. 1008 1009 When a Multicast DNS responder places an IPv4 or IPv6 address record 1010 (rrtype "A" or "AAAA") into a response message, it SHOULD also place 1011 any records of the other address type with the same name into the 1012 additional section, if there is space in the message. This is to 1013 provide fate sharing, so that all a device's addresses are delivered 1014 atomically in a single message, to reduce the risk that packet loss 1015 could cause a querier to receive only the IPv4 addresses and not the 1016 IPv6 addresses, or vice versa. 1017 1018 In the event that a device has only IPv4 addresses but no IPv6 1019 addresses, or vice versa, then the appropriate NSEC record SHOULD be 1020 placed into the additional section, so that queriers can know with 1021 certainty that the device has no addresses of that kind. 1022 1023 Some Multicast DNS responders treat a physical interface with both 1024 IPv4 and IPv6 address as a single interface with two addresses. 1025 Other Multicast DNS responders may treat this case as logically two 1026 interfaces (one with one or more IPv4 addresses, and the other with 1027 one or more IPv6 addresses), but responders that operate this way 1028 MUST NOT put the corresponding automatic NSEC records in replies they 1029 send (i.e., a negative IPv4 assertion in their IPv6 responses, and a 1030 negative IPv6 assertion in their IPv4 responses) because this would 1031 cause incorrect operation in responders on the network that work the 1032 former way. 1033 1034 6.3. Responding to Multiquestion Queries 1035 1036 Multicast DNS responders MUST correctly handle DNS query messages 1037 containing more than one question, by answering any or all of the 1038 questions to which they have answers. Unlike single-question 1039 1040 1041 1042 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 19] 1043 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1044 1045 1046 queries, where responding without delay is allowed in appropriate 1047 cases, for query messages containing more than one question, all 1048 (non-defensive) answers SHOULD be randomly delayed in the range 1049 20-120 ms, or 400-500 ms if the TC (truncated) bit is set. This is 1050 because when a query message contains more than one question, a 1051 Multicast DNS responder cannot generally be certain that other 1052 responders will not also be simultaneously generating answers to 1053 other questions in that query message. (Answers defending a name, in 1054 response to a probe for that name, are not subject to this delay rule 1055 and are still sent immediately.) 1056 1057 6.4. Response Aggregation 1058 1059 When possible, a responder SHOULD, for the sake of network 1060 efficiency, aggregate as many responses as possible into a single 1061 Multicast DNS response message. For example, when a responder has 1062 several responses it plans to send, each delayed by a different 1063 interval, then earlier responses SHOULD be delayed by up to an 1064 additional 500 ms if that will permit them to be aggregated with 1065 other responses scheduled to go out a little later. 1066 1067 6.5. Wildcard Queries (qtype "ANY" and qclass "ANY") 1068 1069 When responding to queries using qtype "ANY" (255) and/or qclass 1070 "ANY" (255), a Multicast DNS responder MUST respond with *ALL* of its 1071 records that match the query. This is subtly different from how 1072 qtype "ANY" and qclass "ANY" work in Unicast DNS. 1073 1074 A common misconception is that a Unicast DNS query for qtype "ANY" 1075 will elicit a response containing all matching records. This is 1076 incorrect. If there are any records that match the query, the 1077 response is required only to contain at least one of them, not 1078 necessarily all of them. 1079 1080 This somewhat surprising behavior is commonly seen with caching 1081 (i.e., "recursive") name servers. If a caching server receives a 1082 qtype "ANY" query for which it has at least one valid answer, it is 1083 allowed to return only those matching answers it happens to have 1084 already in its cache, and it is not required to reconsult the 1085 authoritative name server to check if there are any more records that 1086 also match the qtype "ANY" query. 1087 1088 For example, one might imagine that a query for qtype "ANY" for name 1089 "host.example.com" would return both the IPv4 (A) and the IPv6 (AAAA) 1090 address records for that host. In reality, what happens is that it 1091 depends on the history of what queries have been previously received 1092 by intervening caching servers. If a caching server has no records 1093 for "host.example.com", then it will consult another server (usually 1094 1095 1096 1097 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 20] 1098 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1099 1100 1101 the authoritative name server for the name in question), and, in that 1102 case, it will typically return all IPv4 and IPv6 address records. 1103 However, if some other host has recently done a query for qtype "A" 1104 for name "host.example.com", so that the caching server already has 1105 IPv4 address records for "host.example.com" in its cache but no IPv6 1106 address records, then it will return only the IPv4 address records it 1107 already has cached, and no IPv6 address records. 1108 1109 Multicast DNS does not share this property that qtype "ANY" and 1110 qclass "ANY" queries return some undefined subset of the matching 1111 records. When responding to queries using qtype "ANY" (255) and/or 1112 qclass "ANY" (255), a Multicast DNS responder MUST respond with *ALL* 1113 of its records that match the query. 1114 1115 6.6. Cooperating Multicast DNS Responders 1116 1117 If a Multicast DNS responder ("A") observes some other Multicast DNS 1118 responder ("B") send a Multicast DNS response message containing a 1119 resource record with the same name, rrtype, and rrclass as one of A's 1120 resource records, but *different* rdata, then: 1121 1122 o If A's resource record is intended to be a shared resource 1123 record, then this is no conflict, and no action is required. 1124 1125 o If A's resource record is intended to be a member of a unique 1126 resource record set owned solely by that responder, then this is 1127 a conflict and MUST be handled as described in Section 9, 1128 "Conflict Resolution". 1129 1130 If a Multicast DNS responder ("A") observes some other Multicast DNS 1131 responder ("B") send a Multicast DNS response message containing a 1132 resource record with the same name, rrtype, and rrclass as one of A's 1133 resource records, and *identical* rdata, then: 1134 1135 o If the TTL of B's resource record given in the message is at 1136 least half the true TTL from A's point of view, then no action 1137 is required. 1138 1139 o If the TTL of B's resource record given in the message is less 1140 than half the true TTL from A's point of view, then A MUST mark 1141 its record to be announced via multicast. Queriers receiving 1142 the record from B would use the TTL given by B and, hence, may 1143 delete the record sooner than A expects. By sending its own 1144 multicast response correcting the TTL, A ensures that the record 1145 will be retained for the desired time. 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 21] 1153 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1154 1155 1156 These rules allow multiple Multicast DNS responders to offer the same 1157 data on the network (perhaps for fault-tolerance reasons) without 1158 conflicting with each other. 1159 1160 6.7. Legacy Unicast Responses 1161 1162 If the source UDP port in a received Multicast DNS query is not port 1163 5353, this indicates that the querier originating the query is a 1164 simple resolver such as described in Section 5.1, "One-Shot Multicast 1165 DNS Queries", which does not fully implement all of Multicast DNS. 1166 In this case, the Multicast DNS responder MUST send a UDP response 1167 directly back to the querier, via unicast, to the query packet's 1168 source IP address and port. This unicast response MUST be a 1169 conventional unicast response as would be generated by a conventional 1170 Unicast DNS server; for example, it MUST repeat the query ID and the 1171 question given in the query message. In addition, the cache-flush 1172 bit described in Section 10.2, "Announcements to Flush Outdated Cache 1173 Entries", MUST NOT be set in legacy unicast responses. 1174 1175 The resource record TTL given in a legacy unicast response SHOULD NOT 1176 be greater than ten seconds, even if the true TTL of the Multicast 1177 DNS resource record is higher. This is because Multicast DNS 1178 responders that fully participate in the protocol use the cache 1179 coherency mechanisms described in Section 10, "Resource Record TTL 1180 Values and Cache Coherency", to update and invalidate stale data. 1181 Were unicast responses sent to legacy resolvers to use the same high 1182 TTLs, these legacy resolvers, which do not implement these cache 1183 coherency mechanisms, could retain stale cached resource record data 1184 long after it is no longer valid. 1185 1186 7. Traffic Reduction 1187 1188 A variety of techniques are used to reduce the amount of traffic on 1189 the network. 1190 1191 7.1. Known-Answer Suppression 1192 1193 When a Multicast DNS querier sends a query to which it already knows 1194 some answers, it populates the Answer Section of the DNS query 1195 message with those answers. 1196 1197 Generally, this applies only to Shared records, not Unique records, 1198 since if a Multicast DNS querier already has at least one Unique 1199 record in its cache then it should not be expecting further different 1200 answers to this question, since the Unique record(s) it already has 1201 comprise the complete answer, so it has no reason to be sending the 1202 query at all. In contrast, having some Shared records in its cache 1203 does not necessarily imply that a Multicast DNS querier will not 1204 1205 1206 1207 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 22] 1208 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1209 1210 1211 receive further answers to this query, and it is in this case that it 1212 is beneficial to use the Known-Answer list to suppress repeated 1213 sending of redundant answers that the querier already knows. 1214 1215 A Multicast DNS responder MUST NOT answer a Multicast DNS query if 1216 the answer it would give is already included in the Answer Section 1217 with an RR TTL at least half the correct value. If the RR TTL of the 1218 answer as given in the Answer Section is less than half of the true 1219 RR TTL as known by the Multicast DNS responder, the responder MUST 1220 send an answer so as to update the querier's cache before the record 1221 becomes in danger of expiration. 1222 1223 Because a Multicast DNS responder will respond if the remaining TTL 1224 given in the Known-Answer list is less than half the true TTL, it is 1225 superfluous for the querier to include such records in the Known- 1226 Answer list. Therefore, a Multicast DNS querier SHOULD NOT include 1227 records in the Known-Answer list whose remaining TTL is less than 1228 half of their original TTL. Doing so would simply consume space in 1229 the message without achieving the goal of suppressing responses and 1230 would, therefore, be a pointless waste of network capacity. 1231 1232 A Multicast DNS querier MUST NOT cache resource records observed in 1233 the Known-Answer Section of other Multicast DNS queries. The Answer 1234 Section of Multicast DNS queries is not authoritative. By placing 1235 information in the Answer Section of a Multicast DNS query, the 1236 querier is stating that it *believes* the information to be true. It 1237 is not asserting that the information *is* true. Some of those 1238 records may have come from other hosts that are no longer on the 1239 network. Propagating that stale information to other Multicast DNS 1240 queriers on the network would not be helpful. 1241 1242 7.2. Multipacket Known-Answer Suppression 1243 1244 Sometimes a Multicast DNS querier will already have too many answers 1245 to fit in the Known-Answer Section of its query packets. In this 1246 case, it should issue a Multicast DNS query containing a question and 1247 as many Known-Answer records as will fit. It MUST then set the TC 1248 (Truncated) bit in the header before sending the query. It MUST 1249 immediately follow the packet with another query packet containing no 1250 questions and as many more Known-Answer records as will fit. If 1251 there are still too many records remaining to fit in the packet, it 1252 again sets the TC bit and continues until all the Known-Answer 1253 records have been sent. 1254 1255 A Multicast DNS responder seeing a Multicast DNS query with the TC 1256 bit set defers its response for a time period randomly selected in 1257 the interval 400-500 ms. This gives the Multicast DNS querier time 1258 to send additional Known-Answer packets before the responder 1259 1260 1261 1262 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 23] 1263 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1264 1265 1266 responds. If the responder sees any of its answers listed in the 1267 Known-Answer lists of subsequent packets from the querying host, it 1268 MUST delete that answer from the list of answers it is planning to 1269 give (provided that no other host on the network has also issued a 1270 query for that record and is waiting to receive an answer). 1271 1272 If the responder receives additional Known-Answer packets with the TC 1273 bit set, it SHOULD extend the delay as necessary to ensure a pause of 1274 400-500 ms after the last such packet before it sends its answer. 1275 This opens the potential risk that a continuous stream of Known- 1276 Answer packets could, theoretically, prevent a responder from 1277 answering indefinitely. In practice, answers are never actually 1278 delayed significantly, and should a situation arise where significant 1279 delays did happen, that would be a scenario where the network is so 1280 overloaded that it would be desirable to err on the side of caution. 1281 The consequence of delaying an answer may be that it takes a user 1282 longer than usual to discover all the services on the local network; 1283 in contrast, the consequence of incorrectly answering before all the 1284 Known-Answer packets have been received would be wasted capacity 1285 sending unnecessary answers on an already overloaded network. In 1286 this (rare) situation, sacrificing speed to preserve reliable network 1287 operation is the right trade-off. 1288 1289 7.3. Duplicate Question Suppression 1290 1291 If a host is planning to transmit (or retransmit) a query, and it 1292 sees another host on the network send a query containing the same 1293 "QM" question, and the Known-Answer Section of that query does not 1294 contain any records that this host would not also put in its own 1295 Known-Answer Section, then this host SHOULD treat its own query as 1296 having been sent. When multiple queriers on the network are querying 1297 for the same resource records, there is no need for them to all be 1298 repeatedly asking the same question. 1299 1300 7.4. Duplicate Answer Suppression 1301 1302 If a host is planning to send an answer, and it sees another host on 1303 the network send a response message containing the same answer 1304 record, and the TTL in that record is not less than the TTL this host 1305 would have given, then this host SHOULD treat its own answer as 1306 having been sent, and not also send an identical answer itself. When 1307 multiple responders on the network have the same data, there is no 1308 need for all of them to respond. 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 24] 1318 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1319 1320 1321 The opportunity for duplicate answer suppression occurs when a host 1322 has received a query, and is delaying its response for some pseudo- 1323 random interval up to 500 ms, as described elsewhere in this 1324 document, and then, before the host sends its response, it sees some 1325 other host on the network send a response message containing the same 1326 answer record. 1327 1328 This feature is particularly useful when Multicast DNS Proxy Servers 1329 are in use, where there could be more than one proxy on the network 1330 giving Multicast DNS answers on behalf of some other host (e.g., 1331 because that other host is currently asleep and is not itself 1332 responding to queries). 1333 1334 8. Probing and Announcing on Startup 1335 1336 Typically a Multicast DNS responder should have, at the very least, 1337 address records for all of its active interfaces. Creating and 1338 advertising an HINFO record on each interface as well can be useful 1339 to network administrators. 1340 1341 Whenever a Multicast DNS responder starts up, wakes up from sleep, 1342 receives an indication of a network interface "Link Change" event, or 1343 has any other reason to believe that its network connectivity may 1344 have changed in some relevant way, it MUST perform the two startup 1345 steps below: Probing (Section 8.1) and Announcing (Section 8.3). 1346 1347 8.1. Probing 1348 1349 The first startup step is that, for all those resource records that a 1350 Multicast DNS responder desires to be unique on the local link, it 1351 MUST send a Multicast DNS query asking for those resource records, to 1352 see if any of them are already in use. The primary example of this 1353 is a host's address records, which map its unique host name to its 1354 unique IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses. All probe queries SHOULD be done 1355 using the desired resource record name and class (usually class 1, 1356 "Internet"), and query type "ANY" (255), to elicit answers for all 1357 types of records with that name. This allows a single question to be 1358 used in place of several questions, which is more efficient on the 1359 network. It also allows a host to verify exclusive ownership of a 1360 name for all rrtypes, which is desirable in most cases. It would be 1361 confusing, for example, if one host owned the "A" record for 1362 "myhost.local.", but a different host owned the "AAAA" record for 1363 that name. 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 25] 1373 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1374 1375 1376 The ability to place more than one question in a Multicast DNS query 1377 is useful here, because it can allow a host to use a single message 1378 to probe for all of its resource records instead of needing a 1379 separate message for each. For example, a host can simultaneously 1380 probe for uniqueness of its "A" record and all its SRV records 1381 [RFC6763] in the same query message. 1382 1383 When ready to send its Multicast DNS probe packet(s) the host should 1384 first wait for a short random delay time, uniformly distributed in 1385 the range 0-250 ms. This random delay is to guard against the case 1386 where several devices are powered on simultaneously, or several 1387 devices are connected to an Ethernet hub, which is then powered on, 1388 or some other external event happens that might cause a group of 1389 hosts to all send synchronized probes. 1390 1391 250 ms after the first query, the host should send a second; then, 1392 250 ms after that, a third. If, by 250 ms after the third probe, no 1393 conflicting Multicast DNS responses have been received, the host may 1394 move to the next step, announcing. (Note that probing is the one 1395 exception from the normal rule that there should be at least one 1396 second between repetitions of the same question, and the interval 1397 between subsequent repetitions should at least double.) 1398 1399 When sending probe queries, a host MUST NOT consult its cache for 1400 potential answers. Only conflicting Multicast DNS responses received 1401 "live" from the network are considered valid for the purposes of 1402 determining whether probing has succeeded or failed. 1403 1404 In order to allow services to announce their presence without 1405 unreasonable delay, the time window for probing is intentionally set 1406 quite short. As a result of this, from the time the first probe 1407 packet is sent, another device on the network using that name has 1408 just 750 ms to respond to defend its name. On networks that are 1409 slow, or busy, or both, it is possible for round-trip latency to 1410 account for a few hundred milliseconds, and software delays in slow 1411 devices can add additional delay. Hence, it is important that when a 1412 device receives a probe query for a name that it is currently using, 1413 it SHOULD generate its response to defend that name immediately and 1414 send it as quickly as possible. The usual rules about random delays 1415 before responding, to avoid sudden bursts of simultaneous answers 1416 from different hosts, do not apply here since normally at most one 1417 host should ever respond to a given probe question. Even when a 1418 single DNS query message contains multiple probe questions, it would 1419 be unusual for that message to elicit a defensive response from more 1420 than one other host. Because of the mDNS multicast rate-limiting 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 26] 1428 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1429 1430 1431 rules, the probes SHOULD be sent as "QU" questions with the unicast- 1432 response bit set, to allow a defending host to respond immediately 1433 via unicast, instead of potentially having to wait before replying 1434 via multicast. 1435 1436 During probing, from the time the first probe packet is sent until 1437 250 ms after the third probe, if any conflicting Multicast DNS 1438 response is received, then the probing host MUST defer to the 1439 existing host, and SHOULD choose new names for some or all of its 1440 resource records as appropriate. Apparently conflicting Multicast 1441 DNS responses received *before* the first probe packet is sent MUST 1442 be silently ignored (see discussion of stale probe packets in Section 1443 8.2, "Simultaneous Probe Tiebreaking", below). In the case of a host 1444 probing using query type "ANY" as recommended above, any answer 1445 containing a record with that name, of any type, MUST be considered a 1446 conflicting response and handled accordingly. 1447 1448 If fifteen conflicts occur within any ten-second period, then the 1449 host MUST wait at least five seconds before each successive 1450 additional probe attempt. This is to help ensure that, in the event 1451 of software bugs or other unanticipated problems, errant hosts do not 1452 flood the network with a continuous stream of multicast traffic. For 1453 very simple devices, a valid way to comply with this requirement is 1454 to always wait five seconds after any failed probe attempt before 1455 trying again. 1456 1457 If a responder knows by other means that its unique resource record 1458 set name, rrtype, and rrclass cannot already be in use by any other 1459 responder on the network, then it SHOULD skip the probing step for 1460 that resource record set. For example, when creating the reverse 1461 address mapping PTR records, the host can reasonably assume that no 1462 other host will be trying to create those same PTR records, since 1463 that would imply that the two hosts were trying to use the same IP 1464 address, and if that were the case, the two hosts would be suffering 1465 communication problems beyond the scope of what Multicast DNS is 1466 designed to solve. Similarly, if a responder is acting as a proxy, 1467 taking over from another Multicast DNS responder that has already 1468 verified the uniqueness of the record, then the proxy SHOULD NOT 1469 repeat the probing step for those records. 1470 1471 8.2. Simultaneous Probe Tiebreaking 1472 1473 The astute reader will observe that there is a race condition 1474 inherent in the previous description. If two hosts are probing for 1475 the same name simultaneously, neither will receive any response to 1476 the probe, and the hosts could incorrectly conclude that they may 1477 both proceed to use the name. To break this symmetry, each host 1478 populates the query message's Authority Section with the record or 1479 1480 1481 1482 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 27] 1483 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1484 1485 1486 records with the rdata that it would be proposing to use, should its 1487 probing be successful. The Authority Section is being used here in a 1488 way analogous to the way it is used as the "Update Section" in a DNS 1489 Update message [RFC2136] [RFC3007]. 1490 1491 When a host is probing for a group of related records with the same 1492 name (e.g., the SRV and TXT record describing a DNS-SD service), only 1493 a single question need be placed in the Question Section, since query 1494 type "ANY" (255) is used, which will elicit answers for all records 1495 with that name. However, for tiebreaking to work correctly in all 1496 cases, the Authority Section must contain *all* the records and 1497 proposed rdata being probed for uniqueness. 1498 1499 When a host that is probing for a record sees another host issue a 1500 query for the same record, it consults the Authority Section of that 1501 query. If it finds any resource record(s) there which answers the 1502 query, then it compares the data of that (those) resource record(s) 1503 with its own tentative data. We consider first the simple case of a 1504 host probing for a single record, receiving a simultaneous probe from 1505 another host also probing for a single record. The two records are 1506 compared and the lexicographically later data wins. This means that 1507 if the host finds that its own data is lexicographically later, it 1508 simply ignores the other host's probe. If the host finds that its 1509 own data is lexicographically earlier, then it defers to the winning 1510 host by waiting one second, and then begins probing for this record 1511 again. The logic for waiting one second and then trying again is to 1512 guard against stale probe packets on the network (possibly even stale 1513 probe packets sent moments ago by this host itself, before some 1514 configuration change, which may be echoed back after a short delay by 1515 some Ethernet switches and some 802.11 base stations). If the 1516 winning simultaneous probe was from a real other host on the network, 1517 then after one second it will have completed its probing, and will 1518 answer subsequent probes. If the apparently winning simultaneous 1519 probe was in fact just an old stale packet on the network (maybe from 1520 the host itself), then when it retries its probing in one second, its 1521 probes will go unanswered, and it will successfully claim the name. 1522 1523 The determination of "lexicographically later" is performed by first 1524 comparing the record class (excluding the cache-flush bit described 1525 in Section 10.2), then the record type, then raw comparison of the 1526 binary content of the rdata without regard for meaning or structure. 1527 If the record classes differ, then the numerically greater class is 1528 considered "lexicographically later". Otherwise, if the record types 1529 differ, then the numerically greater type is considered 1530 "lexicographically later". If the rrtype and rrclass both match, 1531 then the rdata is compared. 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 28] 1538 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1539 1540 1541 In the case of resource records containing rdata that is subject to 1542 name compression [RFC1035], the names MUST be uncompressed before 1543 comparison. (The details of how a particular name is compressed is 1544 an artifact of how and where the record is written into the DNS 1545 message; it is not an intrinsic property of the resource record 1546 itself.) 1547 1548 The bytes of the raw uncompressed rdata are compared in turn, 1549 interpreting the bytes as eight-bit UNSIGNED values, until a byte is 1550 found whose value is greater than that of its counterpart (in which 1551 case, the rdata whose byte has the greater value is deemed 1552 lexicographically later) or one of the resource records runs out of 1553 rdata (in which case, the resource record which still has remaining 1554 data first is deemed lexicographically later). The following is an 1555 example of a conflict: 1556 1557 MyPrinter.local. A 169.254.99.200 1558 MyPrinter.local. A 169.254.200.50 1559 1560 In this case, 169.254.200.50 is lexicographically later (the third 1561 byte, with value 200, is greater than its counterpart with value 99), 1562 so it is deemed the winner. 1563 1564 Note that it is vital that the bytes are interpreted as UNSIGNED 1565 values in the range 0-255, or the wrong outcome may result. In the 1566 example above, if the byte with value 200 had been incorrectly 1567 interpreted as a signed eight-bit value, then it would be interpreted 1568 as value -56, and the wrong address record would be deemed the 1569 winner. 1570 1571 8.2.1. Simultaneous Probe Tiebreaking for Multiple Records 1572 1573 When a host is probing for a set of records with the same name, or a 1574 message is received containing multiple tiebreaker records answering 1575 a given probe question in the Question Section, the host's records 1576 and the tiebreaker records from the message are each sorted into 1577 order, and then compared pairwise, using the same comparison 1578 technique described above, until a difference is found. 1579 1580 The records are sorted using the same lexicographical order as 1581 described above, that is, if the record classes differ, the record 1582 with the lower class number comes first. If the classes are the same 1583 but the rrtypes differ, the record with the lower rrtype number comes 1584 first. If the class and rrtype match, then the rdata is compared 1585 bytewise until a difference is found. For example, in the common 1586 case of advertising DNS-SD services with a TXT record and an SRV 1587 record, the TXT record comes first (the rrtype value for TXT is 16) 1588 and the SRV record comes second (the rrtype value for SRV is 33). 1589 1590 1591 1592 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 29] 1593 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1594 1595 1596 When comparing the records, if the first records match perfectly, 1597 then the second records are compared, and so on. If either list of 1598 records runs out of records before any difference is found, then the 1599 list with records remaining is deemed to have won the tiebreak. If 1600 both lists run out of records at the same time without any difference 1601 being found, then this indicates that two devices are advertising 1602 identical sets of records, as is sometimes done for fault tolerance, 1603 and there is, in fact, no conflict. 1604 1605 8.3. Announcing 1606 1607 The second startup step is that the Multicast DNS responder MUST send 1608 an unsolicited Multicast DNS response containing, in the Answer 1609 Section, all of its newly registered resource records (both shared 1610 records, and unique records that have completed the probing step). 1611 If there are too many resource records to fit in a single packet, 1612 multiple packets should be used. 1613 1614 In the case of shared records (e.g., the PTR records used by DNS- 1615 Based Service Discovery [RFC6763]), the records are simply placed as 1616 is into the Answer Section of the DNS response. 1617 1618 In the case of records that have been verified to be unique in the 1619 previous step, they are placed into the Answer Section of the DNS 1620 response with the most significant bit of the rrclass set to one. 1621 The most significant bit of the rrclass for a record in the Answer 1622 Section of a response message is the Multicast DNS cache-flush bit 1623 and is discussed in more detail below in Section 10.2, "Announcements 1624 to Flush Outdated Cache Entries". 1625 1626 The Multicast DNS responder MUST send at least two unsolicited 1627 responses, one second apart. To provide increased robustness against 1628 packet loss, a responder MAY send up to eight unsolicited responses, 1629 provided that the interval between unsolicited responses increases by 1630 at least a factor of two with every response sent. 1631 1632 A Multicast DNS responder MUST NOT send announcements in the absence 1633 of information that its network connectivity may have changed in some 1634 relevant way. In particular, a Multicast DNS responder MUST NOT send 1635 regular periodic announcements as a matter of course. 1636 1637 Whenever a Multicast DNS responder receives any Multicast DNS 1638 response (solicited or otherwise) containing a conflicting resource 1639 record, the conflict MUST be resolved as described in Section 9, 1640 "Conflict Resolution". 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 30] 1648 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1649 1650 1651 8.4. Updating 1652 1653 At any time, if the rdata of any of a host's Multicast DNS records 1654 changes, the host MUST repeat the Announcing step described above to 1655 update neighboring caches. For example, if any of a host's IP 1656 addresses change, it MUST re-announce those address records. The 1657 host does not need to repeat the Probing step because it has already 1658 established unique ownership of that name. 1659 1660 In the case of shared records, a host MUST send a "goodbye" 1661 announcement with RR TTL zero (see Section 10.1, "Goodbye Packets") 1662 for the old rdata, to cause it to be deleted from peer caches, before 1663 announcing the new rdata. In the case of unique records, a host 1664 SHOULD omit the "goodbye" announcement, since the cache-flush bit on 1665 the newly announced records will cause old rdata to be flushed from 1666 peer caches anyway. 1667 1668 A host may update the contents of any of its records at any time, 1669 though a host SHOULD NOT update records more frequently than ten 1670 times per minute. Frequent rapid updates impose a burden on the 1671 network. If a host has information to disseminate which changes more 1672 frequently than ten times per minute, then it may be more appropriate 1673 to design a protocol for that specific purpose. 1674 1675 9. Conflict Resolution 1676 1677 A conflict occurs when a Multicast DNS responder has a unique record 1678 for which it is currently authoritative, and it receives a Multicast 1679 DNS response message containing a record with the same name, rrtype 1680 and rrclass, but inconsistent rdata. What may be considered 1681 inconsistent is context sensitive, except that resource records with 1682 identical rdata are never considered inconsistent, even if they 1683 originate from different hosts. This is to permit use of proxies and 1684 other fault-tolerance mechanisms that may cause more than one 1685 responder to be capable of issuing identical answers on the network. 1686 1687 A common example of a resource record type that is intended to be 1688 unique, not shared between hosts, is the address record that maps a 1689 host's name to its IP address. Should a host witness another host 1690 announce an address record with the same name but a different IP 1691 address, then that is considered inconsistent, and that address 1692 record is considered to be in conflict. 1693 1694 Whenever a Multicast DNS responder receives any Multicast DNS 1695 response (solicited or otherwise) containing a conflicting resource 1696 record in any of the Resource Record Sections, the Multicast DNS 1697 responder MUST immediately reset its conflicted unique record to 1698 probing state, and go through the startup steps described above in 1699 1700 1701 1702 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 31] 1703 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1704 1705 1706 Section 8, "Probing and Announcing on Startup". The protocol used in 1707 the Probing phase will determine a winner and a loser, and the loser 1708 MUST cease using the name, and reconfigure. 1709 1710 It is very important that any host receiving a resource record that 1711 conflicts with one of its own MUST take action as described above. 1712 In the case of two hosts using the same host name, where one has been 1713 configured to require a unique host name and the other has not, the 1714 one that has not been configured to require a unique host name will 1715 not perceive any conflict, and will not take any action. By 1716 reverting to Probing state, the host that desires a unique host name 1717 will go through the necessary steps to ensure that a unique host name 1718 is obtained. 1719 1720 The recommended course of action after probing and failing is as 1721 follows: 1722 1723 1. Programmatically change the resource record name in an attempt 1724 to find a new name that is unique. This could be done by 1725 adding some further identifying information (e.g., the model 1726 name of the hardware) if it is not already present in the name, 1727 or appending the digit "2" to the name, or incrementing a 1728 number at the end of the name if one is already present. 1729 1730 2. Probe again, and repeat as necessary until a unique name is 1731 found. 1732 1733 3. Once an available unique name has been determined, by probing 1734 without receiving any conflicting response, record this newly 1735 chosen name in persistent storage so that the device will use 1736 the same name the next time it is power-cycled. 1737 1738 4. Display a message to the user or operator informing them of the 1739 name change. For example: 1740 1741 The name "Bob's Music" is in use by another music server on 1742 the network. Your music collection has been renamed to 1743 "Bob's Music (2)". If you want to change this name, use 1744 [describe appropriate menu item or preference dialog here]. 1745 1746 The details of how the user or operator is informed of the new 1747 name depends on context. A desktop computer with a screen 1748 might put up a dialog box. A headless server in the closet may 1749 write a message to a log file, or use whatever mechanism 1750 (email, SNMP trap, etc.) it uses to inform the administrator of 1751 error conditions. On the other hand, a headless server in the 1752 closet may not inform the user at all -- if the user cares, 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 32] 1758 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1759 1760 1761 they will notice the name has changed, and connect to the 1762 server in the usual way (e.g., via web browser) to configure a 1763 new name. 1764 1765 5. After one minute of probing, if the Multicast DNS responder has 1766 been unable to find any unused name, it should log an error 1767 message to inform the user or operator of this fact. This 1768 situation should never occur in normal operation. The only 1769 situations that would cause this to happen would be either a 1770 deliberate denial-of-service attack, or some kind of very 1771 obscure hardware or software bug that acts like a deliberate 1772 denial-of-service attack. 1773 1774 These considerations apply to address records (i.e., host names) and 1775 to all resource records where uniqueness (or maintenance of some 1776 other defined constraint) is desired. 1777 1778 10. Resource Record TTL Values and Cache Coherency 1779 1780 As a general rule, the recommended TTL value for Multicast DNS 1781 resource records with a host name as the resource record's name 1782 (e.g., A, AAAA, HINFO) or a host name contained within the resource 1783 record's rdata (e.g., SRV, reverse mapping PTR record) SHOULD be 120 1784 seconds. 1785 1786 The recommended TTL value for other Multicast DNS resource records is 1787 75 minutes. 1788 1789 A querier with an active outstanding query will issue a query message 1790 when one or more of the resource records in its cache are 80% of the 1791 way to expiry. If the TTL on those records is 75 minutes, this 1792 ongoing cache maintenance process yields a steady-state query rate of 1793 one query every 60 minutes. 1794 1795 Any distributed cache needs a cache coherency protocol. If Multicast 1796 DNS resource records follow the recommendation and have a TTL of 75 1797 minutes, that means that stale data could persist in the system for a 1798 little over an hour. Making the default RR TTL significantly lower 1799 would reduce the lifetime of stale data, but would produce too much 1800 extra traffic on the network. Various techniques are available to 1801 minimize the impact of such stale data, outlined in the five 1802 subsections below. 1803 1804 10.1. Goodbye Packets 1805 1806 In the case where a host knows that certain resource record data is 1807 about to become invalid (for example, when the host is undergoing a 1808 clean shutdown), the host SHOULD send an unsolicited Multicast DNS 1809 1810 1811 1812 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 33] 1813 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1814 1815 1816 response packet, giving the same resource record name, rrtype, 1817 rrclass, and rdata, but an RR TTL of zero. This has the effect of 1818 updating the TTL stored in neighboring hosts' cache entries to zero, 1819 causing that cache entry to be promptly deleted. 1820 1821 Queriers receiving a Multicast DNS response with a TTL of zero SHOULD 1822 NOT immediately delete the record from the cache, but instead record 1823 a TTL of 1 and then delete the record one second later. In the case 1824 of multiple Multicast DNS responders on the network described in 1825 Section 6.6 above, if one of the responders shuts down and 1826 incorrectly sends goodbye packets for its records, it gives the other 1827 cooperating responders one second to send out their own response to 1828 "rescue" the records before they expire and are deleted. 1829 1830 10.2. Announcements to Flush Outdated Cache Entries 1831 1832 Whenever a host has a resource record with new data, or with what 1833 might potentially be new data (e.g., after rebooting, waking from 1834 sleep, connecting to a new network link, or changing IP address), the 1835 host needs to inform peers of that new data. In cases where the host 1836 has not been continuously connected and participating on the network 1837 link, it MUST first probe to re-verify uniqueness of its unique 1838 records, as described above in Section 8.1, "Probing". 1839 1840 Having completed the Probing step, if necessary, the host MUST then 1841 send a series of unsolicited announcements to update cache entries in 1842 its neighbor hosts. In these unsolicited announcements, if the 1843 record is one that has been verified unique, the host sets the most 1844 significant bit of the rrclass field of the resource record. This 1845 bit, the cache-flush bit, tells neighboring hosts that this is not a 1846 shared record type. Instead of merging this new record additively 1847 into the cache in addition to any previous records with the same 1848 name, rrtype, and rrclass, all old records with that name, rrtype, 1849 and rrclass that were received more than one second ago are declared 1850 invalid, and marked to expire from the cache in one second. 1851 1852 The semantics of the cache-flush bit are as follows: normally when a 1853 resource record appears in a Resource Record Section of the DNS 1854 response it means, "This is an assertion that this information is 1855 true". When a resource record appears in a Resource Record Section 1856 of the DNS response with the cache-flush bit set, it means, "This is 1857 an assertion that this information is the truth and the whole truth, 1858 and anything you may have heard more than a second ago regarding 1859 records of this name/rrtype/rrclass is no longer true". 1860 1861 To accommodate the case where the set of records from one host 1862 constituting a single unique RRSet is too large to fit in a single 1863 packet, only cache records that are more than one second old are 1864 1865 1866 1867 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 34] 1868 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1869 1870 1871 flushed. This allows the announcing host to generate a quick burst 1872 of packets back-to-back on the wire containing all the members of the 1873 RRSet. When receiving records with the cache-flush bit set, all 1874 records older than one second are marked to be deleted one second in 1875 the future. One second after the end of the little packet burst, any 1876 records not represented within that packet burst will then be expired 1877 from all peer caches. 1878 1879 Any time a host sends a response packet containing some members of a 1880 unique RRSet, it MUST send the entire RRSet, preferably in a single 1881 packet, or if the entire RRSet will not fit in a single packet, in a 1882 quick burst of packets sent as close together as possible. The host 1883 MUST set the cache-flush bit on all members of the unique RRSet. 1884 1885 Another reason for waiting one second before deleting stale records 1886 from the cache is to accommodate bridged networks. For example, a 1887 host's address record announcement on a wireless interface may be 1888 bridged onto a wired Ethernet and may cause that same host's Ethernet 1889 address records to be flushed from peer caches. The one-second delay 1890 gives the host the chance to see its own announcement arrive on the 1891 wired Ethernet, and immediately re-announce its Ethernet interface's 1892 address records so that both sets remain valid and live in peer 1893 caches. 1894 1895 These rules, about when to set the cache-flush bit and about sending 1896 the entire rrset, apply regardless of *why* the response message is 1897 being generated. They apply to startup announcements as described in 1898 Section 8.3, "Announcing", and to responses generated as a result of 1899 receiving query messages. 1900 1901 The cache-flush bit is only set in records in the Resource Record 1902 Sections of Multicast DNS responses sent to UDP port 5353. 1903 1904 The cache-flush bit MUST NOT be set in any resource records in a 1905 response message sent in legacy unicast responses to UDP ports other 1906 than 5353. 1907 1908 The cache-flush bit MUST NOT be set in any resource records in the 1909 Known-Answer list of any query message. 1910 1911 The cache-flush bit MUST NOT ever be set in any shared resource 1912 record. To do so would cause all the other shared versions of this 1913 resource record with different rdata from different responders to be 1914 immediately deleted from all the caches on the network. 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 35] 1923 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1924 1925 1926 The cache-flush bit does *not* apply to questions listed in the 1927 Question Section of a Multicast DNS message. The top bit of the 1928 rrclass field in questions is used for an entirely different purpose 1929 (see Section 5.4, "Questions Requesting Unicast Responses"). 1930 1931 Note that the cache-flush bit is NOT part of the resource record 1932 class. The cache-flush bit is the most significant bit of the second 1933 16-bit word of a resource record in a Resource Record Section of a 1934 Multicast DNS message (the field conventionally referred to as the 1935 rrclass field), and the actual resource record class is the least 1936 significant fifteen bits of this field. There is no Multicast DNS 1937 resource record class 0x8001. The value 0x8001 in the rrclass field 1938 of a resource record in a Multicast DNS response message indicates a 1939 resource record with class 1, with the cache-flush bit set. When 1940 receiving a resource record with the cache-flush bit set, 1941 implementations should take care to mask off that bit before storing 1942 the resource record in memory, or otherwise ensure that it is given 1943 the correct semantic interpretation. 1944 1945 The reuse of the top bit of the rrclass field only applies to 1946 conventional resource record types that are subject to caching, not 1947 to pseudo-RRs like OPT [RFC2671], TSIG [RFC2845], TKEY [RFC2930], 1948 SIG0 [RFC2931], etc., that pertain only to a particular transport 1949 level message and not to any actual DNS data. Since pseudo-RRs 1950 should never go into the Multicast DNS cache, the concept of a cache- 1951 flush bit for these types is not applicable. In particular, the 1952 rrclass field of an OPT record encodes the sender's UDP payload size, 1953 and should be interpreted as a sixteen-bit length value in the range 1954 0-65535, not a one-bit flag and a fifteen-bit length. 1955 1956 10.3. Cache Flush on Topology change 1957 1958 If the hardware on a given host is able to indicate physical changes 1959 of connectivity, then when the hardware indicates such a change, the 1960 host should take this information into account in its Multicast DNS 1961 cache management strategy. For example, a host may choose to 1962 immediately flush all cache records received on a particular 1963 interface when that cable is disconnected. Alternatively, a host may 1964 choose to adjust the remaining TTL on all those records to a few 1965 seconds so that if the cable is not reconnected quickly, those 1966 records will expire from the cache. 1967 1968 Likewise, when a host reboots, wakes from sleep, or undergoes some 1969 other similar discontinuous state change, the cache management 1970 strategy should take that information into account. 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 36] 1978 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 1979 1980 1981 10.4. Cache Flush on Failure Indication 1982 1983 Sometimes a cache record can be determined to be stale when a client 1984 attempts to use the rdata it contains, and the client finds that 1985 rdata to be incorrect. 1986 1987 For example, the rdata in an address record can be determined to be 1988 incorrect if attempts to contact that host fail, either because (for 1989 an IPv4 address on a local subnet) ARP requests for that address go 1990 unanswered, because (for an IPv6 address with an on-link prefix) ND 1991 requests for that address go unanswered, or because (for an address 1992 on a remote network) a router returns an ICMP "Host Unreachable" 1993 error. 1994 1995 The rdata in an SRV record can be determined to be incorrect if 1996 attempts to communicate with the indicated service at the host and 1997 port number indicated are not successful. 1998 1999 The rdata in a DNS-SD PTR record can be determined to be incorrect if 2000 attempts to look up the SRV record it references are not successful. 2001 2002 The software implementing the Multicast DNS resource record cache 2003 should provide a mechanism so that clients detecting stale rdata can 2004 inform the cache. 2005 2006 When the cache receives this hint that it should reconfirm some 2007 record, it MUST issue two or more queries for the resource record in 2008 dispute. If no response is received within ten seconds, then, even 2009 though its TTL may indicate that it is not yet due to expire, that 2010 record SHOULD be promptly flushed from the cache. 2011 2012 The end result of this is that if a printer suffers a sudden power 2013 failure or other abrupt disconnection from the network, its name may 2014 continue to appear in DNS-SD browser lists displayed on users' 2015 screens. Eventually, that entry will expire from the cache 2016 naturally, but if a user tries to access the printer before that 2017 happens, the failure to successfully contact the printer will trigger 2018 the more hasty demise of its cache entries. This is a sensible 2019 trade-off between good user experience and good network efficiency. 2020 If we were to insist that printers should disappear from the printer 2021 list within 30 seconds of becoming unavailable, for all failure 2022 modes, the only way to achieve this would be for the client to poll 2023 the printer at least every 30 seconds, or for the printer to announce 2024 its presence at least every 30 seconds, both of which would be an 2025 unreasonable burden on most networks. 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 37] 2033 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2034 2035 2036 10.5. Passive Observation Of Failures (POOF) 2037 2038 A host observes the multicast queries issued by the other hosts on 2039 the network. One of the major benefits of also sending responses 2040 using multicast is that it allows all hosts to see the responses (or 2041 lack thereof) to those queries. 2042 2043 If a host sees queries, for which a record in its cache would be 2044 expected to be given as an answer in a multicast response, but no 2045 such answer is seen, then the host may take this as an indication 2046 that the record may no longer be valid. 2047 2048 After seeing two or more of these queries, and seeing no multicast 2049 response containing the expected answer within ten seconds, then even 2050 though its TTL may indicate that it is not yet due to expire, that 2051 record SHOULD be flushed from the cache. The host SHOULD NOT perform 2052 its own queries to reconfirm that the record is truly gone. If every 2053 host on a large network were to do this, it would cause a lot of 2054 unnecessary multicast traffic. If host A sends multicast queries 2055 that remain unanswered, then there is no reason to suppose that host 2056 B or any other host is likely to be any more successful. 2057 2058 The previous section, "Cache Flush on Failure Indication", describes 2059 a situation where a user trying to print discovers that the printer 2060 is no longer available. By implementing the passive observation 2061 described here, when one user fails to contact the printer, all hosts 2062 on the network observe that failure and update their caches 2063 accordingly. 2064 2065 11. Source Address Check 2066 2067 All Multicast DNS responses (including responses sent via unicast) 2068 SHOULD be sent with IP TTL set to 255. This is recommended to 2069 provide backwards-compatibility with older Multicast DNS queriers 2070 (implementing a draft version of this document, posted in February 2071 2004) that check the IP TTL on reception to determine whether the 2072 packet originated on the local link. These older queriers discard 2073 all packets with TTLs other than 255. 2074 2075 A host sending Multicast DNS queries to a link-local destination 2076 address (including the 18.104.22.168 and FF02::FB link-local multicast 2077 addresses) MUST only accept responses to that query that originate 2078 from the local link, and silently discard any other response packets. 2079 Without this check, it could be possible for remote rogue hosts to 2080 send spoof answer packets (perhaps unicast to the victim host), which 2081 the receiving machine could misinterpret as having originated on the 2082 local link. 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 38] 2088 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2089 2090 2091 The test for whether a response originated on the local link is done 2092 in two ways: 2093 2094 * All responses received with a destination address in the IP 2095 header that is the mDNS IPv4 link-local multicast address 2096 22.214.171.124 or the mDNS IPv6 link-local multicast address 2097 FF02::FB are necessarily deemed to have originated on the local 2098 link, regardless of source IP address. This is essential to 2099 allow devices to work correctly and reliably in unusual 2100 configurations, such as multiple logical IP subnets overlayed on 2101 a single link, or in cases of severe misconfiguration, where 2102 devices are physically connected to the same link, but are 2103 currently misconfigured with completely unrelated IP addresses 2104 and subnet masks. 2105 2106 * For responses received with a unicast destination address in the 2107 IP header, the source IP address in the packet is checked to see 2108 if it is an address on a local subnet. An IPv4 source address 2109 is determined to be on a local subnet if, for (one of) the 2110 address(es) configured on the interface receiving the packet, (I 2111 & M) == (P & M), where I and M are the interface address and 2112 subnet mask respectively, P is the source IP address from the 2113 packet, '&' represents the bitwise logical 'and' operation, and 2114 '==' represents a bitwise equality test. An IPv6 source address 2115 is determined to be on the local link if, for any of the on-link 2116 IPv6 prefixes on the interface receiving the packet (learned via 2117 IPv6 router advertisements or otherwise configured on the host), 2118 the first 'n' bits of the IPv6 source address match the first 2119 'n' bits of the prefix address, where 'n' is the length of the 2120 prefix being considered. 2121 2122 Since queriers will ignore responses apparently originating outside 2123 the local subnet, a responder SHOULD avoid generating responses that 2124 it can reasonably predict will be ignored. This applies particularly 2125 in the case of overlayed subnets. If a responder receives a query 2126 addressed to the mDNS IPv4 link-local multicast address 126.96.36.199, 2127 from a source address not apparently on the same subnet as the 2128 responder (or, in the case of IPv6, from a source IPv6 address for 2129 which the responder does not have any address with the same prefix on 2130 that interface), then even if the query indicates that a unicast 2131 response is preferred (see Section 5.4, "Questions Requesting Unicast 2132 Responses"), the responder SHOULD elect to respond by multicast 2133 anyway, since it can reasonably predict that a unicast response with 2134 an apparently non-local source address will probably be ignored. 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 39] 2143 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2144 2145 2146 12. Special Characteristics of Multicast DNS Domains 2147 2148 Unlike conventional DNS names, names that end in ".local." have only 2149 local significance. The same is true of names within the IPv4 link- 2150 local reverse mapping domain "254.169.in-addr.arpa." and the IPv6 2151 link-local reverse mapping domains "8.e.f.ip6.arpa.", 2152 "9.e.f.ip6.arpa.", "a.e.f.ip6.arpa.", and "b.e.f.ip6.arpa.". 2153 2154 These names function primarily as protocol identifiers, rather than 2155 as user-visible identifiers. Even though they may occasionally be 2156 visible to end users, that is not their primary purpose. As such, 2157 these names should be treated as opaque identifiers. In particular, 2158 the string "local" should not be translated or localized into 2159 different languages, much as the name "localhost" is not translated 2160 or localized into different languages. 2161 2162 Conventional Unicast DNS seeks to provide a single unified namespace, 2163 where a given DNS query yields the same answer no matter where on the 2164 planet it is performed or to which recursive DNS server the query is 2165 sent. In contrast, each IP link has its own private ".local.", 2166 "254.169.in-addr.arpa." and IPv6 link-local reverse mapping 2167 namespaces, and the answer to any query for a name within those 2168 domains depends on where that query is asked. (This characteristic 2169 is not unique to Multicast DNS. Although the original concept of DNS 2170 was a single global namespace, in recent years, split views, 2171 firewalls, intranets, DNS geolocation, and the like have increasingly 2172 meant that the answer to a given DNS query has become dependent on 2173 the location of the querier.) 2174 2175 The IPv4 name server address for a Multicast DNS domain is 2176 188.8.131.52. The IPv6 name server address for a Multicast DNS domain 2177 is FF02::FB. These are multicast addresses; therefore, they identify 2178 not a single host but a collection of hosts, working in cooperation 2179 to maintain some reasonable facsimile of a competently managed DNS 2180 zone. Conceptually, a Multicast DNS domain is a single DNS zone; 2181 however, its server is implemented as a distributed process running 2182 on a cluster of loosely cooperating CPUs rather than as a single 2183 process running on a single CPU. 2184 2185 Multicast DNS domains are not delegated from their parent domain via 2186 use of NS (Name Server) records, and there is also no concept of 2187 delegation of subdomains within a Multicast DNS domain. Just because 2188 a particular host on the network may answer queries for a particular 2189 record type with the name "example.local." does not imply anything 2190 about whether that host will answer for the name 2191 "child.example.local.", or indeed for other record types with the 2192 name "example.local.". 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 40] 2198 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2199 2200 2201 There are no NS records anywhere in Multicast DNS domains. Instead, 2202 the Multicast DNS domains are reserved by IANA, and there is 2203 effectively an implicit delegation of all Multicast DNS domains to 2204 the 184.108.40.206:5353 and [FF02::FB]:5353 multicast groups, by virtue 2205 of client software implementing the protocol rules specified in this 2206 document. 2207 2208 Multicast DNS zones have no SOA (Start of Authority) record. A 2209 conventional DNS zone's SOA record contains information such as the 2210 email address of the zone administrator and the monotonically 2211 increasing serial number of the last zone modification. There is no 2212 single human administrator for any given Multicast DNS zone, so there 2213 is no email address. Because the hosts managing any given Multicast 2214 DNS zone are only loosely coordinated, there is no readily available 2215 monotonically increasing serial number to determine whether or not 2216 the zone contents have changed. A host holding part of the shared 2217 zone could crash or be disconnected from the network at any time 2218 without informing the other hosts. There is no reliable way to 2219 provide a zone serial number that would, whenever such a crash or 2220 disconnection occurred, immediately change to indicate that the 2221 contents of the shared zone had changed. 2222 2223 Zone transfers are not possible for any Multicast DNS zone. 2224 2225 13. Enabling and Disabling Multicast DNS 2226 2227 The option to fail-over to Multicast DNS for names not ending in 2228 ".local." SHOULD be a user-configured option, and SHOULD be disabled 2229 by default because of the possible security issues related to 2230 unintended local resolution of apparently global names. Enabling 2231 Multicast DNS for names not ending in ".local." may be appropriate on 2232 a secure isolated network, or on some future network were machines 2233 exclusively use DNSSEC for all DNS queries, and have Multicast DNS 2234 responders capable of generating the appropriate cryptographic DNSSEC 2235 signatures, thereby guarding against spoofing. 2236 2237 The option to look up unqualified (relative) names by appending 2238 ".local." (or not) is controlled by whether ".local." appears (or 2239 not) in the client's DNS search list. 2240 2241 No special control is needed for enabling and disabling Multicast DNS 2242 for names explicitly ending with ".local." as entered by the user. 2243 The user doesn't need a way to disable Multicast DNS for names ending 2244 with ".local.", because if the user doesn't want to use Multicast 2245 DNS, they can achieve this by simply not using those names. If a 2246 user *does* enter a name ending in ".local.", then we can safely 2247 assume the user's intention was probably that it should work. Having 2248 user configuration options that can be (intentionally or 2249 2250 2251 2252 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 41] 2253 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2254 2255 2256 unintentionally) set so that local names don't work is just one more 2257 way of frustrating the user's ability to perform the tasks they want, 2258 perpetuating the view that, "IP networking is too complicated to 2259 configure and too hard to use". 2260 2261 14. Considerations for Multiple Interfaces 2262 2263 A host SHOULD defend its dot-local host name on all active interfaces 2264 on which it is answering Multicast DNS queries. 2265 2266 In the event of a name conflict on *any* interface, a host should 2267 configure a new host name, if it wishes to maintain uniqueness of its 2268 host name. 2269 2270 A host may choose to use the same name (or set of names) for all of 2271 its address records on all interfaces, or it may choose to manage its 2272 Multicast DNS interfaces independently, potentially answering to a 2273 different name (or set of names) on different interfaces. 2274 2275 Except in the case of proxying and other similar specialized uses, 2276 addresses in IPv4 or IPv6 address records in Multicast DNS responses 2277 MUST be valid for use on the interface on which the response is being 2278 sent. 2279 2280 Just as the same link-local IP address may validly be in use 2281 simultaneously on different links by different hosts, the same link- 2282 local host name may validly be in use simultaneously on different 2283 links, and this is not an error. A multihomed host with connections 2284 to two different links may be able to communicate with two different 2285 hosts that are validly using the same name. While this kind of name 2286 duplication should be rare, it means that a host that wants to fully 2287 support this case needs network programming APIs that allow 2288 applications to specify on what interface to perform a link-local 2289 Multicast DNS query, and to discover on what interface a Multicast 2290 DNS response was received. 2291 2292 There is one other special precaution that multihomed hosts need to 2293 take. It's common with today's laptop computers to have an Ethernet 2294 connection and an 802.11 [IEEE.802.11] wireless connection active at 2295 the same time. What the software on the laptop computer can't easily 2296 tell is whether the wireless connection is in fact bridged onto the 2297 same network segment as its Ethernet connection. If the two networks 2298 are bridged together, then packets the host sends on one interface 2299 will arrive on the other interface a few milliseconds later, and care 2300 must be taken to ensure that this bridging does not cause problems: 2301 2302 2303 2304 2305 2306 2307 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 42] 2308 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2309 2310 2311 When the host announces its host name (i.e., its address records) on 2312 its wireless interface, those announcement records are sent with the 2313 cache-flush bit set, so when they arrive on the Ethernet segment, 2314 they will cause all the peers on the Ethernet to flush the host's 2315 Ethernet address records from their caches. The Multicast DNS 2316 protocol has a safeguard to protect against this situation: when 2317 records are received with the cache-flush bit set, other records are 2318 not deleted from peer caches immediately, but are marked for deletion 2319 in one second. When the host sees its own wireless address records 2320 arrive on its Ethernet interface, with the cache-flush bit set, this 2321 one-second grace period gives the host time to respond and re- 2322 announce its Ethernet address records, to reinstate those records in 2323 peer caches before they are deleted. 2324 2325 As described, this solves one problem, but creates another, because 2326 when those Ethernet announcement records arrive back on the wireless 2327 interface, the host would again respond defensively to reinstate its 2328 wireless records, and this process would continue forever, 2329 continuously flooding the network with traffic. The Multicast DNS 2330 protocol has a second safeguard, to solve this problem: the cache- 2331 flush bit does not apply to records received very recently, within 2332 the last second. This means that when the host sees its own Ethernet 2333 address records arrive on its wireless interface, with the cache- 2334 flush bit set, it knows there's no need to re-announce its wireless 2335 address records again because it already sent them less than a second 2336 ago, and this makes them immune from deletion from peer caches. (See 2337 Section 10.2.) 2338 2339 15. Considerations for Multiple Responders on the Same Machine 2340 2341 It is possible to have more than one Multicast DNS responder and/or 2342 querier implementation coexist on the same machine, but there are 2343 some known issues. 2344 2345 15.1. Receiving Unicast Responses 2346 2347 In most operating systems, incoming *multicast* packets can be 2348 delivered to *all* open sockets bound to the right port number, 2349 provided that the clients take the appropriate steps to allow this. 2350 For this reason, all Multicast DNS implementations SHOULD use the 2351 SO_REUSEPORT and/or SO_REUSEADDR options (or equivalent as 2352 appropriate for the operating system in question) so they will all be 2353 able to bind to UDP port 5353 and receive incoming multicast packets 2354 addressed to that port. However, unlike multicast packets, incoming 2355 unicast UDP packets are typically delivered only to the first socket 2356 to bind to that port. This means that "QU" responses and other 2357 packets sent via unicast will be received only by the first Multicast 2358 DNS responder and/or querier on a system. This limitation can be 2359 2360 2361 2362 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 43] 2363 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2364 2365 2366 partially mitigated if Multicast DNS implementations detect when they 2367 are not the first to bind to port 5353, and in that case they do not 2368 request "QU" responses. One way to detect if there is another 2369 Multicast DNS implementation already running is to attempt binding to 2370 port 5353 without using SO_REUSEPORT and/or SO_REUSEADDR, and if that 2371 fails it indicates that some other socket is already bound to this 2372 port. 2373 2374 15.2. Multipacket Known-Answer lists 2375 2376 When a Multicast DNS querier issues a query with too many Known 2377 Answers to fit into a single packet, it divides the Known-Answer list 2378 into two or more packets. Multicast DNS responders associate the 2379 initial truncated query with its continuation packets by examining 2380 the source IP address in each packet. Since two independent 2381 Multicast DNS queriers running on the same machine will be sending 2382 packets with the same source IP address, from an outside perspective 2383 they appear to be a single entity. If both queriers happened to send 2384 the same multipacket query at the same time, with different Known- 2385 Answer lists, then they could each end up suppressing answers that 2386 the other needs. 2387 2388 15.3. Efficiency 2389 2390 If different clients on a machine were each to have their own 2391 independent Multicast DNS implementation, they would lose certain 2392 efficiency benefits. Apart from the unnecessary code duplication, 2393 memory usage, and CPU load, the clients wouldn't get the benefit of a 2394 shared system-wide cache, and they would not be able to aggregate 2395 separate queries into single packets to reduce network traffic. 2396 2397 15.4. Recommendation 2398 2399 Because of these issues, this document encourages implementers to 2400 design systems with a single Multicast DNS implementation that 2401 provides Multicast DNS services shared by all clients on that 2402 machine, much as most operating systems today have a single TCP 2403 implementation, which is shared between all clients on that machine. 2404 Due to engineering constraints, there may be situations where 2405 embedding a "user-level" Multicast DNS implementation in the client 2406 application software is the most expedient solution, and while this 2407 will usually work in practice, implementers should be aware of the 2408 issues outlined in this section. 2409 2410 2411 2412 2413 2414 2415 2416 2417 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 44] 2418 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2419 2420 2421 16. Multicast DNS Character Set 2422 2423 Historically, Unicast DNS has been used with a very restricted set of 2424 characters. Indeed, conventional DNS is usually limited to just 2425 twenty-six letters, ten digits and the hyphen character, not even 2426 allowing spaces or other punctuation. Attempts to remedy this for 2427 Unicast DNS have been badly constrained by the perceived need to 2428 accommodate old buggy legacy DNS implementations. In reality, the 2429 DNS specification itself actually imposes no limits on what 2430 characters may be used in names, and good DNS implementations handle 2431 any arbitrary eight-bit data without trouble. "Clarifications to the 2432 DNS Specification" [RFC2181] directly discusses the subject of 2433 allowable character set in Section 11 ("Name syntax"), and explicitly 2434 states that DNS names may contain arbitrary eight-bit data. However, 2435 the old rules for ARPANET host names back in the 1980s required host 2436 names to be just letters, digits, and hyphens [RFC1034], and since 2437 the predominant use of DNS is to store host address records, many 2438 have assumed that the DNS protocol itself suffers from the same 2439 limitation. It might be accurate to say that there could be 2440 hypothetical bad implementations that do not handle eight-bit data 2441 correctly, but it would not be accurate to say that the protocol 2442 doesn't allow names containing eight-bit data. 2443 2444 Multicast DNS is a new protocol and doesn't (yet) have old buggy 2445 legacy implementations to constrain the design choices. Accordingly, 2446 it adopts the simple obvious elegant solution: all names in Multicast 2447 DNS MUST be encoded as precomposed UTF-8 [RFC3629] "Net-Unicode" 2448 [RFC5198] text. 2449 2450 Some users of 16-bit Unicode have taken to stuffing a "zero-width 2451 nonbreaking space" character (U+FEFF) at the start of each UTF-16 2452 file, as a hint to identify whether the data is big-endian or little- 2453 endian, and calling it a "Byte Order Mark" (BOM). Since there is 2454 only one possible byte order for UTF-8 data, a BOM is neither 2455 necessary nor permitted. Multicast DNS names MUST NOT contain a 2456 "Byte Order Mark". Any occurrence of the Unicode character U+FEFF at 2457 the start or anywhere else in a Multicast DNS name MUST be 2458 interpreted as being an actual intended part of the name, 2459 representing (just as for any other legal unicode value) an actual 2460 literal instance of that character (in this case a zero-width non- 2461 breaking space character). 2462 2463 For names that are restricted to US-ASCII [RFC0020] letters, digits, 2464 and hyphens, the UTF-8 encoding is identical to the US-ASCII 2465 encoding, so this is entirely compatible with existing host names. 2466 For characters outside the US-ASCII range, UTF-8 encoding is used. 2467 2468 2469 2470 2471 2472 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 45] 2473 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2474 2475 2476 Multicast DNS implementations MUST NOT use any other encodings apart 2477 from precomposed UTF-8 (US-ASCII being considered a compatible subset 2478 of UTF-8). The reasons for selecting UTF-8 instead of Punycode 2479 [RFC3492] are discussed further in Appendix F. 2480 2481 The simple rules for case-insensitivity in Unicast DNS [RFC1034] 2482 [RFC1035] also apply in Multicast DNS; that is to say, in name 2483 comparisons, the lowercase letters "a" to "z" (0x61 to 0x7A) match 2484 their uppercase equivalents "A" to "Z" (0x41 to 0x5A). Hence, if a 2485 querier issues a query for an address record with the name 2486 "myprinter.local.", then a responder having an address record with 2487 the name "MyPrinter.local." should issue a response. No other 2488 automatic equivalences should be assumed. In particular, all UTF-8 2489 multibyte characters (codes 0x80 and higher) are compared by simple 2490 binary comparison of the raw byte values. Accented characters are 2491 *not* defined to be automatically equivalent to their unaccented 2492 counterparts. Where automatic equivalences are desired, this may be 2493 achieved through the use of programmatically generated CNAME records. 2494 For example, if a responder has an address record for an accented 2495 name Y, and a querier issues a query for a name X, where X is the 2496 same as Y with all the accents removed, then the responder may issue 2497 a response containing two resource records: a CNAME record "X CNAME 2498 Y", asserting that the requested name X (unaccented) is an alias for 2499 the true (accented) name Y, followed by the address record for Y. 2500 2501 17. Multicast DNS Message Size 2502 2503 The 1987 DNS specification [RFC1035] restricts DNS messages carried 2504 by UDP to no more than 512 bytes (not counting the IP or UDP 2505 headers). For UDP packets carried over the wide-area Internet in 2506 1987, this was appropriate. For link-local multicast packets on 2507 today's networks, there is no reason to retain this restriction. 2508 Given that the packets are by definition link-local, there are no 2509 Path MTU issues to consider. 2510 2511 Multicast DNS messages carried by UDP may be up to the IP MTU of the 2512 physical interface, less the space required for the IP header (20 2513 bytes for IPv4; 40 bytes for IPv6) and the UDP header (8 bytes). 2514 2515 In the case of a single Multicast DNS resource record that is too 2516 large to fit in a single MTU-sized multicast response packet, a 2517 Multicast DNS responder SHOULD send the resource record alone, in a 2518 single IP datagram, using multiple IP fragments. Resource records 2519 this large SHOULD be avoided, except in the very rare cases where 2520 they really are the appropriate solution to the problem at hand. 2521 Implementers should be aware that many simple devices do not 2522 reassemble fragmented IP datagrams, so large resource records SHOULD 2523 NOT be used except in specialized cases where the implementer knows 2524 2525 2526 2527 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 46] 2528 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2529 2530 2531 that all receivers implement reassembly, or where the large resource 2532 record contains optional data which is not essential for correct 2533 operation of the client. 2534 2535 A Multicast DNS packet larger than the interface MTU, which is sent 2536 using fragments, MUST NOT contain more than one resource record. 2537 2538 Even when fragmentation is used, a Multicast DNS packet, including IP 2539 and UDP headers, MUST NOT exceed 9000 bytes. 2540 2541 Note that 9000 bytes is also the maximum payload size of an Ethernet 2542 "Jumbo" packet [Jumbo]. However, in practice Ethernet "Jumbo" 2543 packets are not widely used, so it is advantageous to keep packets 2544 under 1500 bytes whenever possible. Even on hosts that normally 2545 handle Ethernet "Jumbo" packets and IP fragment reassembly, it is 2546 becoming more common for these hosts to implement power-saving modes 2547 where the main CPU goes to sleep and hands off packet reception tasks 2548 to a more limited processor in the network interface hardware, which 2549 may not support Ethernet "Jumbo" packets or IP fragment reassembly. 2550 2551 18. Multicast DNS Message Format 2552 2553 This section describes specific rules pertaining to the allowable 2554 values for the header fields of a Multicast DNS message, and other 2555 message format considerations. 2556 2557 18.1. ID (Query Identifier) 2558 2559 Multicast DNS implementations SHOULD listen for unsolicited responses 2560 issued by hosts booting up (or waking up from sleep or otherwise 2561 joining the network). Since these unsolicited responses may contain 2562 a useful answer to a question for which the querier is currently 2563 awaiting an answer, Multicast DNS implementations SHOULD examine all 2564 received Multicast DNS response messages for useful answers, without 2565 regard to the contents of the ID field or the Question Section. In 2566 Multicast DNS, knowing which particular query message (if any) is 2567 responsible for eliciting a particular response message is less 2568 interesting than knowing whether the response message contains useful 2569 information. 2570 2571 Multicast DNS implementations MAY cache data from any or all 2572 Multicast DNS response messages they receive, for possible future 2573 use, provided of course that normal TTL aging is performed on these 2574 cached resource records. 2575 2576 In multicast query messages, the Query Identifier SHOULD be set to 2577 zero on transmission. 2578 2579 2580 2581 2582 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 47] 2583 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2584 2585 2586 In multicast responses, including unsolicited multicast responses, 2587 the Query Identifier MUST be set to zero on transmission, and MUST be 2588 ignored on reception. 2589 2590 In legacy unicast response messages generated specifically in 2591 response to a particular (unicast or multicast) query, the Query 2592 Identifier MUST match the ID from the query message. 2593 2594 18.2. QR (Query/Response) Bit 2595 2596 In query messages the QR bit MUST be zero. 2597 In response messages the QR bit MUST be one. 2598 2599 18.3. OPCODE 2600 2601 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the OPCODE 2602 MUST be zero on transmission (only standard queries are currently 2603 supported over multicast). Multicast DNS messages received with an 2604 OPCODE other than zero MUST be silently ignored. 2605 2606 18.4. AA (Authoritative Answer) Bit 2607 2608 In query messages, the Authoritative Answer bit MUST be zero on 2609 transmission, and MUST be ignored on reception. 2610 2611 In response messages for Multicast domains, the Authoritative Answer 2612 bit MUST be set to one (not setting this bit would imply there's some 2613 other place where "better" information may be found) and MUST be 2614 ignored on reception. 2615 2616 18.5. TC (Truncated) Bit 2617 2618 In query messages, if the TC bit is set, it means that additional 2619 Known-Answer records may be following shortly. A responder SHOULD 2620 record this fact, and wait for those additional Known-Answer records, 2621 before deciding whether to respond. If the TC bit is clear, it means 2622 that the querying host has no additional Known Answers. 2623 2624 In multicast response messages, the TC bit MUST be zero on 2625 transmission, and MUST be ignored on reception. 2626 2627 In legacy unicast response messages, the TC bit has the same meaning 2628 as in conventional Unicast DNS: it means that the response was too 2629 large to fit in a single packet, so the querier SHOULD reissue its 2630 query using TCP in order to receive the larger response. 2631 2632 2633 2634 2635 2636 2637 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 48] 2638 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2639 2640 2641 18.6. RD (Recursion Desired) Bit 2642 2643 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the 2644 Recursion Desired bit SHOULD be zero on transmission, and MUST be 2645 ignored on reception. 2646 2647 18.7. RA (Recursion Available) Bit 2648 2649 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the 2650 Recursion Available bit MUST be zero on transmission, and MUST be 2651 ignored on reception. 2652 2653 18.8. Z (Zero) Bit 2654 2655 In both query and response messages, the Zero bit MUST be zero on 2656 transmission, and MUST be ignored on reception. 2657 2658 18.9. AD (Authentic Data) Bit 2659 2660 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the 2661 Authentic Data bit [RFC2535] MUST be zero on transmission, and MUST 2662 be ignored on reception. 2663 2664 18.10. CD (Checking Disabled) Bit 2665 2666 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the Checking 2667 Disabled bit [RFC2535] MUST be zero on transmission, and MUST be 2668 ignored on reception. 2669 2670 18.11. RCODE (Response Code) 2671 2672 In both multicast query and multicast response messages, the Response 2673 Code MUST be zero on transmission. Multicast DNS messages received 2674 with non-zero Response Codes MUST be silently ignored. 2675 2676 18.12. Repurposing of Top Bit of qclass in Question Section 2677 2678 In the Question Section of a Multicast DNS query, the top bit of the 2679 qclass field is used to indicate that unicast responses are preferred 2680 for this particular question. (See Section 5.4.) 2681 2682 18.13. Repurposing of Top Bit of rrclass in Resource Record Sections 2683 2684 In the Resource Record Sections of a Multicast DNS response, the top 2685 bit of the rrclass field is used to indicate that the record is a 2686 member of a unique RRSet, and the entire RRSet has been sent together 2687 (in the same packet, or in consecutive packets if there are too many 2688 records to fit in a single packet). (See Section 10.2.) 2689 2690 2691 2692 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 49] 2693 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2694 2695 2696 18.14. Name Compression 2697 2698 When generating Multicast DNS messages, implementations SHOULD use 2699 name compression wherever possible to compress the names of resource 2700 records, by replacing some or all of the resource record name with a 2701 compact two-byte reference to an appearance of that data somewhere 2702 earlier in the message [RFC1035]. 2703 2704 This applies not only to Multicast DNS responses, but also to 2705 queries. When a query contains more than one question, successive 2706 questions in the same message often contain similar names, and 2707 consequently name compression SHOULD be used, to save bytes. In 2708 addition, queries may also contain Known Answers in the Answer 2709 Section, or probe tiebreaking data in the Authority Section, and 2710 these names SHOULD similarly be compressed for network efficiency. 2711 2712 In addition to compressing the *names* of resource records, names 2713 that appear within the *rdata* of the following rrtypes SHOULD also 2714 be compressed in all Multicast DNS messages: 2715 2716 NS, CNAME, PTR, DNAME, SOA, MX, AFSDB, RT, KX, RP, PX, SRV, NSEC 2717 2718 Until future IETF Standards Action [RFC5226] specifying that names in 2719 the rdata of other types should be compressed, names that appear 2720 within the rdata of any type not listed above MUST NOT be compressed. 2721 2722 Implementations receiving Multicast DNS messages MUST correctly 2723 decode compressed names appearing in the Question Section, and 2724 compressed names of resource records appearing in other sections. 2725 2726 In addition, implementations MUST correctly decode compressed names 2727 appearing within the *rdata* of the rrtypes listed above. Where 2728 possible, implementations SHOULD also correctly decode compressed 2729 names appearing within the *rdata* of other rrtypes known to the 2730 implementers at the time of implementation, because such forward- 2731 thinking planning helps facilitate the deployment of future 2732 implementations that may have reason to compress those rrtypes. It 2733 is possible that no future IETF Standards Action [RFC5226] will be 2734 created that mandates or permits the compression of rdata in new 2735 types, but having implementations designed such that they are capable 2736 of decompressing all known types helps keep future options open. 2737 2738 One specific difference between Unicast DNS and Multicast DNS is that 2739 Unicast DNS does not allow name compression for the target host in an 2740 SRV record, because Unicast DNS implementations before the first SRV 2741 specification in 1996 [RFC2052] may not decode these compressed 2742 2743 2744 2745 2746 2747 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 50] 2748 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2749 2750 2751 records properly. Since all Multicast DNS implementations were 2752 created after 1996, all Multicast DNS implementations are REQUIRED to 2753 decode compressed SRV records correctly. 2754 2755 In legacy unicast responses generated to answer legacy queries, name 2756 compression MUST NOT be performed on SRV records. 2757 2758 19. Summary of Differences between Multicast DNS and Unicast DNS 2759 2760 Multicast DNS shares, as much as possible, the familiar APIs, naming 2761 syntax, resource record types, etc., of Unicast DNS. There are, of 2762 course, necessary differences by virtue of it using multicast, and by 2763 virtue of it operating in a community of cooperating peers, rather 2764 than a precisely defined hierarchy controlled by a strict chain of 2765 formal delegations from the root. These differences are summarized 2766 below: 2767 2768 Multicast DNS... 2769 * uses multicast 2770 * uses UDP port 5353 instead of port 53 2771 * operates in well-defined parts of the DNS namespace 2772 * has no SOA (Start of Authority) records 2773 * uses UTF-8, and only UTF-8, to encode resource record names 2774 * allows names up to 255 bytes plus a terminating zero byte 2775 * allows name compression in rdata for SRV and other record types 2776 * allows larger UDP packets 2777 * allows more than one question in a query message 2778 * defines consistent results for qtype "ANY" and qclass "ANY" queries 2779 * uses the Answer Section of a query to list Known Answers 2780 * uses the TC bit in a query to indicate additional Known Answers 2781 * uses the Authority Section of a query for probe tiebreaking 2782 * ignores the Query ID field (except for generating legacy responses) 2783 * doesn't require the question to be repeated in the response message 2784 * uses unsolicited responses to announce new records 2785 * uses NSEC records to signal nonexistence of records 2786 * defines a unicast-response bit in the rrclass of query questions 2787 * defines a cache-flush bit in the rrclass of response records 2788 * uses DNS RR TTL 0 to indicate that a record has been deleted 2789 * recommends AAAA records in the additional section when responding 2790 to rrtype "A" queries, and vice versa 2791 * monitors queries to perform Duplicate Question Suppression 2792 * monitors responses to perform Duplicate Answer Suppression... 2793 * ... and Ongoing Conflict Detection 2794 * ... and Opportunistic Caching 2795 2796 2797 2798 2799 2800 2801 2802 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 51] 2803 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2804 2805 2806 20. IPv6 Considerations 2807 2808 An IPv4-only host and an IPv6-only host behave as "ships that pass in 2809 the night". Even if they are on the same Ethernet, neither is aware 2810 of the other's traffic. For this reason, each physical link may have 2811 *two* unrelated ".local." zones, one for IPv4 and one for IPv6. 2812 Since for practical purposes, a group of IPv4-only hosts and a group 2813 of IPv6-only hosts on the same Ethernet act as if they were on two 2814 entirely separate Ethernet segments, it is unsurprising that their 2815 use of the ".local." zone should occur exactly as it would if they 2816 really were on two entirely separate Ethernet segments. 2817 2818 A dual-stack (v4/v6) host can participate in both ".local." zones, 2819 and should register its name(s) and perform its lookups both using 2820 IPv4 and IPv6. This enables it to reach, and be reached by, both 2821 IPv4-only and IPv6-only hosts. In effect, this acts like a 2822 multihomed host, with one connection to the logical "IPv4 Ethernet 2823 segment", and a connection to the logical "IPv6 Ethernet segment". 2824 When such a host generates NSEC records, if it is using the same host 2825 name for its IPv4 addresses and its IPv6 addresses on that network 2826 interface, its NSEC records should indicate that the host name has 2827 both A and AAAA records. 2828 2829 21. Security Considerations 2830 2831 The algorithm for detecting and resolving name conflicts is, by its 2832 very nature, an algorithm that assumes cooperating participants. Its 2833 purpose is to allow a group of hosts to arrive at a mutually disjoint 2834 set of host names and other DNS resource record names, in the absence 2835 of any central authority to coordinate this or mediate disputes. In 2836 the absence of any higher authority to resolve disputes, the only 2837 alternative is that the participants must work together cooperatively 2838 to arrive at a resolution. 2839 2840 In an environment where the participants are mutually antagonistic 2841 and unwilling to cooperate, other mechanisms are appropriate, like 2842 manually configured DNS. 2843 2844 In an environment where there is a group of cooperating participants, 2845 but clients cannot be sure that there are no antagonistic hosts on 2846 the same physical link, the cooperating participants need to use 2847 IPsec signatures and/or DNSSEC [RFC4033] signatures so that they can 2848 distinguish Multicast DNS messages from trusted participants (which 2849 they process as usual) from Multicast DNS messages from untrusted 2850 participants (which they silently discard). 2851 2852 2853 2854 2855 2856 2857 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 52] 2858 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2859 2860 2861 If DNS queries for *global* DNS names are sent to the mDNS multicast 2862 address (during network outages which disrupt communication with the 2863 greater Internet) it is *especially* important to use DNSSEC, because 2864 the user may have the impression that he or she is communicating with 2865 some authentic host, when in fact he or she is really communicating 2866 with some local host that is merely masquerading as that name. This 2867 is less critical for names ending with ".local.", because the user 2868 should be aware that those names have only local significance and no 2869 global authority is implied. 2870 2871 Most computer users neglect to type the trailing dot at the end of a 2872 fully qualified domain name, making it a relative domain name (e.g., 2873 "www.example.com"). In the event of network outage, attempts to 2874 positively resolve the name as entered will fail, resulting in 2875 application of the search list, including ".local.", if present. A 2876 malicious host could masquerade as "www.example.com." by answering 2877 the resulting Multicast DNS query for "www.example.com.local.". To 2878 avoid this, a host MUST NOT append the search suffix ".local.", if 2879 present, to any relative (partially qualified) host name containing 2880 two or more labels. Appending ".local." to single-label relative 2881 host names is acceptable, since the user should have no expectation 2882 that a single-label host name will resolve as is. However, users who 2883 have both "example.com" and "local" in their search lists should be 2884 aware that if they type "www" into their web browser, it may not be 2885 immediately clear to them whether the page that appears is 2886 "www.example.com" or "www.local". 2887 2888 Multicast DNS uses UDP port 5353. On operating systems where only 2889 privileged processes are allowed to use ports below 1024, no such 2890 privilege is required to use port 5353. 2891 2892 22. IANA Considerations 2893 2894 IANA has allocated the UDP port 5353 for the Multicast DNS protocol 2895 described in this document [SN]. 2896 2897 IANA has allocated the IPv4 link-local multicast address 220.127.116.11 2898 for the use described in this document [MC4]. 2899 2900 IANA has allocated the IPv6 multicast address set FF0X::FB (where "X" 2901 indicates any hexadecimal digit from '1' to 'F') for the use 2902 described in this document [MC6]. Only address FF02::FB (link-local 2903 scope) is currently in use by deployed software, but it is possible 2904 that in the future implementers may experiment with Multicast DNS 2905 using larger-scoped addresses, such as FF05::FB (site-local scope) 2906 [RFC4291]. 2907 2908 2909 2910 2911 2912 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 53] 2913 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2914 2915 2916 IANA has implemented the following DNS records: 2917 2918 MDNS.MCAST.NET. IN A 18.104.22.168 2919 251.0.0.224.IN-ADDR.ARPA. IN PTR MDNS.MCAST.NET. 2920 2921 Entries for the AAAA and corresponding PTR records have not been made 2922 as there is not yet an RFC providing direction for the management of 2923 the IP6.ARPA domain relating to the IPv6 multicast address space. 2924 2925 The reuse of the top bit of the rrclass field in the Question and 2926 Resource Record Sections means that Multicast DNS can only carry DNS 2927 records with classes in the range 0-32767. Classes in the range 2928 32768 to 65535 are incompatible with Multicast DNS. IANA has noted 2929 this fact, and if IANA receives a request to allocate a DNS class 2930 value above 32767, IANA will make sure the requester is aware of this 2931 implication before proceeding. This does not mean that allocations 2932 of DNS class values above 32767 should be denied, only that they 2933 should not be allowed until the requester has indicated that they are 2934 aware of how this allocation will interact with Multicast DNS. 2935 However, to date, only three DNS classes have been assigned by IANA 2936 (1, 3, and 4), and only one (1, "Internet") is actually in widespread 2937 use, so this issue is likely to remain a purely theoretical one. 2938 2939 IANA has recorded the list of domains below as being Special-Use 2940 Domain Names [RFC6761]: 2941 2942 .local. 2943 .254.169.in-addr.arpa. 2944 .8.e.f.ip6.arpa. 2945 .9.e.f.ip6.arpa. 2946 .a.e.f.ip6.arpa. 2947 .b.e.f.ip6.arpa. 2948 2949 22.1. Domain Name Reservation Considerations 2950 2951 The six domains listed above, and any names falling within those 2952 domains (e.g., "MyPrinter.local.", "22.214.171.124.in-addr.arpa.", 2953 "Ink-Jet._pdl-datastream._tcp.local.") are special [RFC6761] in the 2954 following ways: 2955 2956 1. Users may use these names as they would other DNS names, 2957 entering them anywhere that they would otherwise enter a 2958 conventional DNS name, or a dotted decimal IPv4 address, or a 2959 literal IPv6 address. 2960 2961 Since there is no central authority responsible for assigning 2962 dot-local names, and all devices on the local network are 2963 equally entitled to claim any dot-local name, users SHOULD be 2964 2965 2966 2967 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 54] 2968 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 2969 2970 2971 aware of this and SHOULD exercise appropriate caution. In an 2972 untrusted or unfamiliar network environment, users SHOULD be 2973 aware that using a name like "www.local" may not actually 2974 connect them to the web site they expected, and could easily 2975 connect them to a different web page, or even a fake or spoof 2976 of their intended web site, designed to trick them into 2977 revealing confidential information. As always with networking, 2978 end-to-end cryptographic security can be a useful tool. For 2979 example, when connecting with ssh, the ssh host key 2980 verification process will inform the user if it detects that 2981 the identity of the entity they are communicating with has 2982 changed since the last time they connected to that name. 2983 2984 2. Application software may use these names as they would other 2985 similar DNS names, and is not required to recognize the names 2986 and treat them specially. Due to the relative ease of spoofing 2987 dot-local names, end-to-end cryptographic security remains 2988 important when communicating across a local network, just as it 2989 is when communicating across the global Internet. 2990 2991 3. Name resolution APIs and libraries SHOULD recognize these names 2992 as special and SHOULD NOT send queries for these names to their 2993 configured (unicast) caching DNS server(s). This is to avoid 2994 unnecessary load on the root name servers and other name 2995 servers, caused by queries for which those name servers do not 2996 have useful non-negative answers to give, and will not ever 2997 have useful non-negative answers to give. 2998 2999 4. Caching DNS servers SHOULD recognize these names as special and 3000 SHOULD NOT attempt to look up NS records for them, or otherwise 3001 query authoritative DNS servers in an attempt to resolve these 3002 names. Instead, caching DNS servers SHOULD generate immediate 3003 NXDOMAIN responses for all such queries they may receive (from 3004 misbehaving name resolver libraries). This is to avoid 3005 unnecessary load on the root name servers and other name 3006 servers. 3007 3008 5. Authoritative DNS servers SHOULD NOT by default be configurable 3009 to answer queries for these names, and, like caching DNS 3010 servers, SHOULD generate immediate NXDOMAIN responses for all 3011 such queries they may receive. DNS server software MAY provide 3012 a configuration option to override this default, for testing 3013 purposes or other specialized uses. 3014 3015 6. DNS server operators SHOULD NOT attempt to configure 3016 authoritative DNS servers to act as authoritative for any of 3017 these names. Configuring an authoritative DNS server to act as 3018 authoritative for any of these names may not, in many cases, 3019 3020 3021 3022 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 55] 3023 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3024 3025 3026 yield the expected result. Since name resolver libraries and 3027 caching DNS servers SHOULD NOT send queries for those names 3028 (see 3 and 4 above), such queries SHOULD be suppressed before 3029 they even reach the authoritative DNS server in question, and 3030 consequently it will not even get an opportunity to answer 3031 them. 3032 3033 7. DNS Registrars MUST NOT allow any of these names to be 3034 registered in the normal way to any person or entity. These 3035 names are reserved protocol identifiers with special meaning 3036 and fall outside the set of names available for allocation by 3037 registrars. Attempting to allocate one of these names as if it 3038 were a normal domain name will probably not work as desired, 3039 for reasons 3, 4, and 6 above. 3040 3041 23. Acknowledgments 3042 3043 The concepts described in this document have been explored, 3044 developed, and implemented with help from Ran Atkinson, Richard 3045 Brown, Freek Dijkstra, Erik Guttman, Kyle McKay, Pasi Sarolahti, 3046 Pekka Savola, Robby Simpson, Mark Townsley, Paul Vixie, Bill 3047 Woodcock, and others. Special thanks go to Bob Bradley, Josh 3048 Graessley, Scott Herscher, Rory McGuire, Roger Pantos, and Kiren 3049 Sekar for their significant contributions. Special thanks also to 3050 Kerry Lynn for converting the document to xml2rfc form in May 2010, 3051 and to Area Director Ralph Droms for shepherding the document through 3052 its final steps. 3053 3054 24. References 3055 3056 24.1. Normative References 3057 3058 [MC4] IANA, "IPv4 Multicast Address Space Registry", 3059 <http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses/>. 3060 3061 [MC6] IANA, "IPv6 Multicast Address Space Registry", 3062 <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ 3063 ipv6-multicast-addresses/>. 3064 3065 [RFC0020] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", RFC 20, 3066 October 1969. 3067 3068 [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", 3069 STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987. 3070 3071 [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and 3072 specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. 3073 3074 3075 3076 3077 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 56] 3078 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3079 3080 3081 [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 3082 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 3083 3084 [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 3085 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 3086 3087 [RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. 3088 Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", 3089 RFC 4034, March 2005. 3090 3091 [RFC5198] Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network 3092 Interchange", RFC 5198, March 2008. 3093 3094 [RFC6195] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) IANA 3095 Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 6195, March 2011. 3096 3097 [RFC6761] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Special-Use Domain Names", 3098 RFC 6761, February 2013. 3099 3100 [SN] IANA, "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number 3101 Registry", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ 3102 service-names-port-numbers/>. 3103 3104 24.2. Informative References 3105 3106 [B4W] "Bonjour for Windows", 3107 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonjour_(software)>. 3108 3109 [BJ] Apple Bonjour Open Source Software, 3110 <http://developer.apple.com/bonjour/>. 3111 3112 [IEEE.802.3] 3113 "Information technology - Telecommunications and 3114 information exchange between systems - Local and 3115 metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 3116 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection 3117 (CMSA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer 3118 Specifications", IEEE Std 802.3-2008, December 2008, 3119 <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.3.html>. 3120 3121 [IEEE.802.11] 3122 "Information technology - Telecommunications and 3123 information exchange between systems - Local and 3124 metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 3125 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical 3126 Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE Std 802.11-2007, June 3127 2007, <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.11.html>. 3128 3129 3130 3131 3132 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 57] 3133 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3134 3135 3136 [Jumbo] "Ethernet Jumbo Frames", November 2009, 3137 <http://www.ethernetalliance.org/library/whitepaper/ 3138 ethernet-jumbo-frames/>. 3139 3140 [NIAS] Cheshire, S. "Discovering Named Instances of Abstract 3141 Services using DNS", Work in Progress, July 2001. 3142 3143 [NSD] "NsdManager | Android Developer", June 2012, 3144 <http://developer.android.com/reference/ 3145 android/net/nsd/NsdManager.html>. 3146 3147 [RFC2052] Gulbrandsen, A. and P. Vixie, "A DNS RR for specifying the 3148 location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2052, October 1996. 3149 3150 [RFC2132] Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor 3151 Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997. 3152 3153 [RFC2136] Vixie, P., Ed., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, 3154 "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", 3155 RFC 2136, April 1997. 3156 3157 [RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS 3158 Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997. 3159 3160 [RFC2535] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System Security 3161 Extensions", RFC 2535, March 1999. 3162 3163 [RFC2671] Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", RFC 3164 2671, August 1999. 3165 3166 [RFC2845] Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake 3rd, D., and B. 3167 Wellington, "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS 3168 (TSIG)", RFC 2845, May 2000. 3169 3170 [RFC2930] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY 3171 RR)", RFC 2930, September 2000. 3172 3173 [RFC2931] Eastlake 3rd, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures 3174 ( SIG(0)s )", RFC 2931, September 2000. 3175 3176 [RFC3007] Wellington, B., "Secure Domain Name System (DNS) Dynamic 3177 Update", RFC 3007, November 2000. 3178 3179 [RFC3492] Costello, A., "Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode 3180 for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications 3181 (IDNA)", RFC 3492, March 2003. 3182 3183 3184 3185 3186 3187 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 58] 3188 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3189 3190 3191 [RFC3927] Cheshire, S., Aboba, B., and E. Guttman, "Dynamic 3192 Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses", RFC 3927, May 3193 2005. 3194 3195 [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. 3196 Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 3197 4033, March 2005. 3198 3199 [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing 3200 Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. 3201 3202 [RFC4795] Aboba, B., Thaler, D., and L. Esibov, "Link-local 3203 Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)", RFC 4795, January 3204 2007. 3205 3206 [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, 3207 "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, 3208 September 2007. 3209 3210 [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless 3211 Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007. 3212 3213 [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an 3214 IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, 3215 May 2008. 3216 3217 [RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for 3218 Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", 3219 RFC 5890, August 2010. 3220 3221 [RFC6281] Cheshire, S., Zhu, Z., Wakikawa, R., and L. Zhang, 3222 "Understanding Apple's Back to My Mac (BTMM) Service", RFC 3223 6281, June 2011. 3224 3225 [RFC6760] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Requirements for a Protocol 3226 to Replace the AppleTalk Name Binding Protocol (NBP)", RFC 3227 6760, February 2013. 3228 3229 [RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service 3230 Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013. 3231 3232 [Zeroconf] Cheshire, S. and D. Steinberg, "Zero Configuration 3233 Networking: The Definitive Guide", O'Reilly Media, Inc., 3234 ISBN 0-596-10100-7, December 2005. 3235 3236 3237 3238 3239 3240 3241 3242 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 59] 3243 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3244 3245 3246 Appendix A. Design Rationale for Choice of UDP Port Number 3247 3248 Arguments were made for and against using UDP port 53, the standard 3249 Unicast DNS port. Some of the arguments are given below. The 3250 arguments for using a different port were greater in number and more 3251 compelling, so that option was ultimately selected. The UDP port 3252 "5353" was selected for its mnemonic similarity to "53". 3253 3254 Arguments for using UDP port 53: 3255 3256 * This is "just DNS", so it should be the same port. 3257 3258 * There is less work to be done updating old resolver libraries to do 3259 simple Multicast DNS queries. Only the destination address need be 3260 changed. In some cases, this can be achieved without any code 3261 changes, just by adding the address 126.96.36.199 to a configuration 3262 file. 3263 3264 Arguments for using a different port (UDP port 5353): 3265 3266 * This is not "just DNS". This is a DNS-like protocol, but 3267 different. 3268 3269 * Changing resolver library code to use a different port number is 3270 not hard. In some cases, this can be achieved without any code 3271 changes, just by adding the address 188.8.131.52:5353 to a 3272 configuration file. 3273 3274 * Using the same port number makes it hard to run a Multicast DNS 3275 responder and a conventional Unicast DNS server on the same 3276 machine. If a conventional Unicast DNS server wishes to implement 3277 Multicast DNS as well, it can still do that, by opening two 3278 sockets. Having two different port numbers allows this 3279 flexibility. 3280 3281 * Some VPN software hijacks all outgoing traffic to port 53 and 3282 redirects it to a special DNS server set up to serve those VPN 3283 clients while they are connected to the corporate network. It is 3284 questionable whether this is the right thing to do, but it is 3285 common, and redirecting link-local multicast DNS packets to a 3286 remote server rarely produces any useful results. It does mean, 3287 for example, that a user of such VPN software becomes unable to 3288 access their local network printer sitting on their desk right next 3289 to their computer. Using a different UDP port helps avoid this 3290 particular problem. 3291 3292 3293 3294 3295 3296 3297 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 60] 3298 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3299 3300 3301 * On many operating systems, unprivileged software may not send or 3302 receive packets on low-numbered ports. This means that any 3303 software sending or receiving Multicast DNS packets on port 53 3304 would have to run as "root", which is an undesirable security risk. 3305 Using a higher-numbered UDP port avoids this restriction. 3306 3307 Appendix B. Design Rationale for Not Using Hashed Multicast Addresses 3308 3309 Some discovery protocols use a range of multicast addresses, and 3310 determine the address to be used by a hash function of the name being 3311 sought. Queries are sent via multicast to the address as indicated 3312 by the hash function, and responses are returned to the querier via 3313 unicast. Particularly in IPv6, where multicast addresses are 3314 extremely plentiful, this approach is frequently advocated. For 3315 example, IPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] sends Neighbor 3316 Solicitation messages to the "solicited-node multicast address", 3317 which is computed as a function of the solicited IPv6 address. 3318 3319 There are some disadvantages to using hashed multicast addresses like 3320 this in a service discovery protocol: 3321 3322 * When a host has a large number of records with different names, the 3323 host may have to join a large number of multicast groups. Each 3324 time a host joins or leaves a multicast group, this results in 3325 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) or Multicast Listener 3326 Discovery (MLD) traffic on the network announcing this fact. 3327 Joining a large number of multicast groups can place undue burden 3328 on the Ethernet hardware, which typically supports a limited number 3329 of multicast addresses efficiently. When this number is exceeded, 3330 the Ethernet hardware may have to resort to receiving all 3331 multicasts and passing them up to the host networking code for 3332 filtering in software, thereby defeating much of the point of using 3333 a multicast address range in the first place. Finally, many IPv6 3334 stacks have a fixed limit IPV6_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS, and the code simply 3335 fails with an error if a client attempts to exceed this limit. 3336 Common values for IPV6_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS are 20 or 31. 3337 3338 * Multiple questions cannot be placed in one packet if they don't all 3339 hash to the same multicast address. 3340 3341 * Duplicate Question Suppression doesn't work if queriers are not 3342 seeing each other's queries. 3343 3344 * Duplicate Answer Suppression doesn't work if responders are not 3345 seeing each other's responses. 3346 3347 * Opportunistic Caching doesn't work. 3348 3349 3350 3351 3352 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 61] 3353 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3354 3355 3356 * Ongoing Conflict Detection doesn't work. 3357 3358 Appendix C. Design Rationale for Maximum Multicast DNS Name Length 3359 3360 Multicast DNS names may be up to 255 bytes long (in the on-the-wire 3361 message format), not counting the terminating zero byte at the end. 3362 3363 "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification" [RFC1035] says: 3364 3365 Various objects and parameters in the DNS have size limits. They 3366 are listed below. Some could be easily changed, others are more 3367 fundamental. 3368 3369 labels 63 octets or less 3370 3371 names 255 octets or less 3372 3373 ... 3374 3375 the total length of a domain name (i.e., label octets and label 3376 length octets) is restricted to 255 octets or less. 3377 3378 This text does not state whether this 255-byte limit includes the 3379 terminating zero at the end of every name. 3380 3381 Several factors lead us to conclude that the 255-byte limit does 3382 *not* include the terminating zero: 3383 3384 o It is common in software engineering to have size limits that are a 3385 power of two, or a multiple of a power of two, for efficiency. For 3386 example, an integer on a modern processor is typically 2, 4, or 8 3387 bytes, not 3 or 5 bytes. The number 255 is not a power of two, nor 3388 is it to most people a particularly noteworthy number. It is 3389 noteworthy to computer scientists for only one reason -- because it 3390 is exactly one *less* than a power of two. When a size limit is 3391 exactly one less than a power of two, that suggests strongly that 3392 the one extra byte is being reserved for some specific reason -- in 3393 this case reserved, perhaps, to leave room for a terminating zero 3394 at the end. 3395 3396 o In the case of DNS label lengths, the stated limit is 63 bytes. As 3397 with the total name length, this limit is exactly one less than a 3398 power of two. This label length limit also excludes the label 3399 length byte at the start of every label. Including that extra 3400 byte, a 63-byte label takes 64 bytes of space in memory or in a DNS 3401 message. 3402 3403 3404 3405 3406 3407 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 62] 3408 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3409 3410 3411 o It is common in software engineering for the semantic "length" of 3412 an object to be one less than the number of bytes it takes to store 3413 that object. For example, in C, strlen("foo") is 3, but 3414 sizeof("foo") (which includes the terminating zero byte at the end) 3415 is 4. 3416 3417 o The text describing the total length of a domain name mentions 3418 explicitly that label length and data octets are included, but does 3419 not mention the terminating zero at the end. The zero byte at the 3420 end of a domain name is not a label length. Indeed, the value zero 3421 is chosen as the terminating marker precisely because it is not a 3422 legal length byte value -- DNS prohibits empty labels. For 3423 example, a name like "bad..name." is not a valid domain name 3424 because it contains a zero-length label in the middle, which cannot 3425 be expressed in a DNS message, because software parsing the message 3426 would misinterpret a zero label-length byte as being a zero "end of 3427 name" marker instead. 3428 3429 Finally, "Clarifications to the DNS Specification" [RFC2181] offers 3430 additional confirmation that, in the context of DNS specifications, 3431 the stated "length" of a domain name does not include the terminating 3432 zero byte at the end. That document refers to the root name, which 3433 is typically written as "." and is represented in a DNS message by a 3434 single lone zero byte (i.e., zero bytes of data plus a terminating 3435 zero), as the "zero length full name": 3436 3437 The zero length full name is defined as representing the root of 3438 the DNS tree, and is typically written and displayed as ".". 3439 3440 This wording supports the interpretation that, in a DNS context, when 3441 talking about lengths of names, the terminating zero byte at the end 3442 is not counted. If the root name (".") is considered to be zero 3443 length, then to be consistent, the length (for example) of "org" has 3444 to be 4 and the length of "ietf.org" has to be 9, as shown below: 3445 3446 ------ 3447 | 0x00 | length = 0 3448 ------ 3449 3450 ------------------ ------ 3451 | 0x03 | o | r | g | | 0x00 | length = 4 3452 ------------------ ------ 3453 3454 ----------------------------------------- ------ 3455 | 0x04 | i | e | t | f | 0x03 | o | r | g | | 0x00 | length = 9 3456 ----------------------------------------- ------ 3457 3458 3459 3460 3461 3462 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 63] 3463 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3464 3465 3466 This means that the maximum length of a domain name, as represented 3467 in a Multicast DNS message, up to but not including the final 3468 terminating zero, must not exceed 255 bytes. 3469 3470 However, many Unicast DNS implementers have read these RFCs 3471 differently, and argue that the 255-byte limit does include the 3472 terminating zero, and that the "Clarifications to the DNS 3473 Specification" [RFC2181] statement that "." is the "zero length full 3474 name" was simply a mistake. 3475 3476 Hence, implementers should be aware that other Unicast DNS 3477 implementations may limit the maximum domain name to 254 bytes plus a 3478 terminating zero, depending on how that implementer interpreted the 3479 DNS specifications. 3480 3481 Compliant Multicast DNS implementations MUST support names up to 255 3482 bytes plus a terminating zero, i.e., 256 bytes total. 3483 3484 Appendix D. Benefits of Multicast Responses 3485 3486 Some people have argued that sending responses via multicast is 3487 inefficient on the network. In fact, using multicast responses can 3488 result in a net lowering of overall multicast traffic for a variety 3489 of reasons, and provides other benefits too: 3490 3491 * Opportunistic Caching. One multicast response can update the 3492 caches on all machines on the network. If another machine later 3493 wants to issue the same query, and it already has the answer in its 3494 cache, it may not need to even transmit that multicast query on the 3495 network at all. 3496 3497 * Duplicate Query Suppression. When more than one machine has the 3498 same ongoing long-lived query running, every machine does not have 3499 to transmit its own independent query. When one machine transmits 3500 a query, all the other hosts see the answers, so they can suppress 3501 their own queries. 3502 3503 * Passive Observation Of Failures (POOF). When a host sees a 3504 multicast query, but does not see the corresponding multicast 3505 response, it can use this information to promptly delete stale data 3506 from its cache. To achieve the same level of user-interface 3507 quality and responsiveness without multicast responses would 3508 require lower cache lifetimes and more frequent network polling, 3509 resulting in a higher packet rate. 3510 3511 * Passive Conflict Detection. Just because a name has been 3512 previously verified to be unique does not guarantee it will 3513 continue to be so indefinitely. By allowing all Multicast DNS 3514 3515 3516 3517 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 64] 3518 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3519 3520 3521 responders to constantly monitor their peers' responses, conflicts 3522 arising out of network topology changes can be promptly detected 3523 and resolved. If responses were not sent via multicast, some other 3524 conflict detection mechanism would be needed, imposing its own 3525 additional burden on the network. 3526 3527 * Use on devices with constrained memory resources: When using 3528 delayed responses to reduce network collisions, responders need to 3529 maintain a list recording to whom each answer should be sent. The 3530 option of multicast responses allows responders with limited 3531 storage, which cannot store an arbitrarily long list of response 3532 addresses, to choose to fail-over to a single multicast response in 3533 place of multiple unicast responses, when appropriate. 3534 3535 * Overlayed Subnets. In the case of overlayed subnets, multicast 3536 responses allow a receiver to know with certainty that a response 3537 originated on the local link, even when its source address may 3538 apparently suggest otherwise. 3539 3540 * Robustness in the face of misconfiguration: Link-local multicast 3541 transcends virtually every conceivable network misconfiguration. 3542 Even if you have a collection of devices where every device's IP 3543 address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS server address are 3544 all wrong, packets sent by any of those devices addressed to a 3545 link-local multicast destination address will still be delivered to 3546 all peers on the local link. This can be extremely helpful when 3547 diagnosing and rectifying network problems, since it facilitates a 3548 direct communication channel between client and server that works 3549 without reliance on ARP, IP routing tables, etc. Being able to 3550 discover what IP address a device has (or thinks it has) is 3551 frequently a very valuable first step in diagnosing why it is 3552 unable to communicate on the local network. 3553 3554 Appendix E. Design Rationale for Encoding Negative Responses 3555 3556 Alternative methods of asserting nonexistence were considered, such 3557 as using an NXDOMAIN response, or emitting a resource record with 3558 zero-length rdata. 3559 3560 Using an NXDOMAIN response does not work well with Multicast DNS. A 3561 Unicast DNS NXDOMAIN response applies to the entire message, but for 3562 efficiency Multicast DNS allows (and encourages) multiple responses 3563 in a single message. If the error code in the header were NXDOMAIN, 3564 it would not be clear to which name(s) that error code applied. 3565 3566 Asserting nonexistence by emitting a resource record with zero-length 3567 rdata would mean that there would be no way to differentiate between 3568 a record that doesn't exist, and a record that does exist, with zero- 3569 3570 3571 3572 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 65] 3573 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3574 3575 3576 length rdata. By analogy, most file systems today allow empty files, 3577 so a file that exists with zero bytes of data is not considered 3578 equivalent to a filename that does not exist. 3579 3580 A benefit of asserting nonexistence through NSEC records instead of 3581 through NXDOMAIN responses is that NSEC records can be added to the 3582 Additional Section of a DNS response to offer additional information 3583 beyond what the querier explicitly requested. For example, in 3584 response to an SRV query, a responder should include A record(s) 3585 giving its IPv4 addresses in the Additional Section, and an NSEC 3586 record indicating which other types it does or does not have for this 3587 name. If the responder is running on a host that does not support 3588 IPv6 (or does support IPv6 but currently has no IPv6 address on that 3589 interface) then this NSEC record in the Additional Section will 3590 indicate this absence of AAAA records. In effect, the responder is 3591 saying, "Here's my SRV record, and here are my IPv4 addresses, and 3592 no, I don't have any IPv6 addresses, so don't waste your time 3593 asking". Without this information in the Additional Section, it 3594 would take the querier an additional round-trip to perform an 3595 additional query to ascertain that the target host has no AAAA 3596 records. (Arguably Unicast DNS could also benefit from this ability 3597 to express nonexistence in the Additional Section, but that is 3598 outside the scope of this document.) 3599 3600 Appendix F. Use of UTF-8 3601 3602 After many years of debate, as a result of the perceived need to 3603 accommodate certain DNS implementations that apparently couldn't 3604 handle any character that's not a letter, digit, or hyphen (and 3605 apparently never would be updated to remedy this limitation), the 3606 Unicast DNS community settled on an extremely baroque encoding called 3607 "Punycode" [RFC3492]. Punycode is a remarkably ingenious encoding 3608 solution, but it is complicated, hard to understand, and hard to 3609 implement, using sophisticated techniques including insertion unsort 3610 coding, generalized variable-length integers, and bias adaptation. 3611 The resulting encoding is remarkably compact given the constraints, 3612 but it's still not as good as simple straightforward UTF-8, and it's 3613 hard even to predict whether a given input string will encode to a 3614 Punycode string that fits within DNS's 63-byte limit, except by 3615 simply trying the encoding and seeing whether it fits. Indeed, the 3616 encoded size depends not only on the input characters, but on the 3617 order they appear, so the same set of characters may or may not 3618 encode to a legal Punycode string that fits within DNS's 63-byte 3619 limit, depending on the order the characters appear. This is 3620 extremely hard to present in a user interface that explains to users 3621 why one name is allowed, but another name containing the exact same 3622 characters is not. Neither Punycode nor any other of the "ASCII- 3623 Compatible Encodings" [RFC5890] proposed for Unicast DNS may be used 3624 3625 3626 3627 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 66] 3628 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3629 3630 3631 in Multicast DNS messages. Any text being represented internally in 3632 some other representation must be converted to canonical precomposed 3633 UTF-8 before being placed in any Multicast DNS message. 3634
The 'Next Domain Name' field contains the record's own name. When used with name compression, this means that the 'Next Domain Name' field always takes exactly two bytes in the message.
The 'Next Domain Name' field contains the record's own name.
When used with name compression, this means that the 'Next Domain Name' field always takes exactly two bytes in the message.
3635 Appendix G. Private DNS Namespaces 3636 3637 The special treatment of names ending in ".local." has been 3638 implemented in Macintosh computers since the days of Mac OS 9, and 3639 continues today in Mac OS X and iOS. There are also implementations 3640 for Microsoft Windows [B4W], Linux, and other platforms. 3641 3642 Some network operators setting up private internal networks 3643 ("intranets") have used unregistered top-level domains, and some may 3644 have used the ".local" top-level domain. Using ".local" as a private 3645 top-level domain conflicts with Multicast DNS and may cause problems 3646 for users. Clients can be configured to send both Multicast and 3647 Unicast DNS queries in parallel for these names, and this does allow 3648 names to be looked up both ways, but this results in additional 3649 network traffic and additional delays in name resolution, as well as 3650 potentially creating user confusion when it is not clear whether any 3651 given result was received via link-local multicast from a peer on the 3652 same link, or from the configured unicast name server. Because of 3653 this, we recommend against using ".local" as a private Unicast DNS 3654 top-level domain. We do not recommend use of unregistered top-level 3655 domains at all, but should network operators decide to do this, the 3656 following top-level domains have been used on private internal 3657 networks without the problems caused by trying to reuse ".local." for 3658 this purpose: 3659 3660 .intranet. 3661 .internal. 3662 .private. 3663 .corp. 3664 .home. 3665 .lan. 3666 3667 Appendix H. Deployment History 3668 3669 In July 1997, in an email to the firstname.lastname@example.org 3670 mailing list, Stuart Cheshire first proposed the idea of running the 3671 AppleTalk Name Binding Protocol [RFC6760] over IP. As a result of 3672 this and related IETF discussions, the IETF Zeroconf working group 3673 was chartered September 1999. After various working group 3674 discussions and other informal IETF discussions, several Internet- 3675 Drafts were written that were loosely related to the general themes 3676 of DNS and multicast, but did not address the service discovery 3677 aspect of NBP. 3678 3679 3680 3681 3682 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 67] 3683 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3684 3685 3686 In April 2000, Stuart Cheshire registered IPv4 multicast address 3687 184.108.40.206 with IANA [MC4] and began writing code to test and 3688 develop the idea of performing NBP-like service discovery using 3689 Multicast DNS, which was documented in a group of three Internet- 3690 Drafts: 3691 3692 o "Requirements for a Protocol to Replace the AppleTalk Name Binding 3693 Protocol (NBP)" [RFC6760] is an overview explaining the AppleTalk 3694 Name Binding Protocol, because many in the IETF community had 3695 little first-hand experience using AppleTalk, and confusion in the 3696 IETF community about what AppleTalk NBP did was causing confusion 3697 about what would be required in an IP-based replacement. 3698 3699 o "Discovering Named Instances of Abstract Services using DNS" [NIAS] 3700 proposed a way to perform NBP-like service discovery using DNS- 3701 compatible names and record types. 3702 3703 o "Multicast DNS" (this document) specifies a way to transport those 3704 DNS-compatible queries and responses using IP multicast, for zero- 3705 configuration environments where no conventional Unicast DNS server 3706 was available. 3707 3708 In 2001, an update to Mac OS 9 added resolver library support for 3709 host name lookup using Multicast DNS. If the user typed a name such 3710 as "MyPrinter.local." into any piece of networking software that used 3711 the standard Mac OS 9 name lookup APIs, then those name lookup APIs 3712 would recognize the name as a dot-local name and query for it by 3713 sending simple one-shot Multicast DNS queries to 220.127.116.11:5353. 3714 This enabled the user to, for example, enter the name 3715 "MyPrinter.local." into their web browser in order to view a 3716 printer's status and configuration web page, or enter the name 3717 "MyPrinter.local." into the printer setup utility to create a print 3718 queue for printing documents on that printer. 3719 3720 Multicast DNS responder software, with full service discovery, first 3721 began shipping to end users in volume with the launch of Mac OS X 3722 10.2 "Jaguar" in August 2002, and network printer makers (who had 3723 historically supported AppleTalk in their network printers and were 3724 receptive to IP-based technologies that could offer them similar 3725 ease-of-use) started adopting Multicast DNS shortly thereafter. 3726 3727 In September 2002, Apple released the source code for the 3728 mDNSResponder daemon as Open Source under Apple's standard Apple 3729 Public Source License (APSL). 3730 3731 Multicast DNS responder software became available for Microsoft 3732 Windows users in June 2004 with the launch of Apple's "Rendezvous for 3733 Windows" (now "Bonjour for Windows"), both in executable form (a 3734 3735 3736 3737 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 68] 3738 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3739 3740 3741 downloadable installer for end users) and as Open Source (one of the 3742 supported platforms within Apple's body of cross-platform code in the 3743 publicly accessible mDNSResponder CVS source code repository) [BJ]. 3744 3745 In August 2006, Apple re-licensed the cross-platform mDNSResponder 3746 source code under the Apache License, Version 2.0. 3747 3748 In addition to desktop and laptop computers running Mac OS X and 3749 Microsoft Windows, Multicast DNS is now implemented in a wide range 3750 of hardware devices, such as Apple's "AirPort" wireless base 3751 stations, iPhone and iPad, and in home gateways from other vendors, 3752 network printers, network cameras, TiVo DVRs, etc. 3753 3754 The Open Source community has produced many independent 3755 implementations of Multicast DNS, some in C like Apple's 3756 mDNSResponder daemon, and others in a variety of different languages 3757 including Java, Python, Perl, and C#/Mono. 3758 3759 In January 2007, the IETF published the Informational RFC "Link-Local 3760 Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)" [RFC4795], which is substantially 3761 similar to Multicast DNS, but incompatible in some small but 3762 important ways. In particular, the LLMNR design explicitly excluded 3763 support for service discovery, which made it an unsuitable candidate 3764 for a protocol to replace AppleTalk NBP [RFC6760]. 3765 3766 While the original focus of Multicast DNS and DNS-Based Service 3767 Discovery was for zero-configuration environments without a 3768 conventional Unicast DNS server, DNS-Based Service Discovery also 3769 works using Unicast DNS servers, using DNS Update [RFC2136] [RFC3007] 3770 to create service discovery records and standard DNS queries to query 3771 for them. Apple's Back to My Mac service, launched with Mac OS X 3772 10.5 "Leopard" in October 2007, uses DNS-Based Service Discovery over 3773 Unicast DNS [RFC6281]. 3774 3775 In June 2012, Google's Android operating system added native support 3776 for DNS-SD and Multicast DNS with the android.net.nsd.NsdManager 3777 class in Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean" (API Level 16) [NSD]. 3778 3779 3780 3781 3782 3783 3784 3785 3786 3787 3788 3789 3790 3791 3792 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 69] 3793 RFC 6762 Multicast DNS February 2013 3794 3795 3796 Authors' Addresses 3797 3798 Stuart Cheshire 3799 Apple Inc. 3800 1 Infinite Loop 3801 Cupertino, CA 95014 3802 USA 3803 3804 Phone: +1 408 974 3207 3805 EMail: email@example.com 3806 3807 3808 Marc Krochmal 3809 Apple Inc. 3810 1 Infinite Loop 3811 Cupertino, CA 95014 3812 USA 3813 3814 Phone: +1 408 974 4368 3815 EMail: firstname.lastname@example.org 3816 3817 3818 3819 3820 3821 3822 3823 3824 3825 3826 3827 3828 3829 3830 3831 3832 3833 3834 3835 3836 3837 3838 3839 3840 3841 3842 3843 3844 3845 3846 3847 Cheshire & Krochmal Standards Track [Page 70] 3848
We do not recommend use of unregistered top-level domains at all, but should network operators decide to do this, the following top-level domains have been used on private internal networks without the problems caused by trying to reuse ".local." for this purpose: .intranet. .internal. .private. .corp. .home. .lan.
We do not recommend use of unregistered top-level domains.
Since TLDs like .private are currently available for register. Appendix G is outdated and I would strongly advise the IETF to remove the suggested TLDs since they are no longer problem free. I believe that it is wise to make a harder statement in the RFC. --VERIFIER NOTES-- During the development of this RFC, the text is consistent with the consensus of the community. Later developments by ICANN superseded the appendix, but that is not applicable for an erratum. Updates to the text should be proposed via the draft publication process.